APPENDIX 1. Obituary of Dr. Neville Thomas Yeomans Psychiatrist 1928 - 2000  476

APPENDIX 2. List of the Early Actions and the Isomorphic Social Action Neville Had me Experience as Action Researcher 478

APPENDIX 3. Diagnosis of Fraser House Population as at 30th June 1962 (Clark, A. & Yeomans, N., 1969 Page 56) 481

APPENDIX 4 The Roles of Fraser House Nurses – A Paper by Patients (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 4, 17-20) 483

APPENDIX 5 - Fraser House Big Groups – A Paper by Patients (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 4, 50-54) 488

APPENDIX 6 - The Roles of the Fraser House Patient/Outpatient Committees  491

APPENDIX 7 - A list of the Questions That Were Asked in Neville’s Values Research. 496

APPENDIX 8 - Research Questionnaires and Inventories - Neville T. Yeomans Collected Papers 1965, Vol. 11. 497

APPENDIX 9 - A List of Other Inventories Developed and Used at Fraser House (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 4 , p. 43): 498

APPENDIX 10 - A partial List of Research by Dr. Neville T. Yeomans other Research with Colleagues during the years 1959-1965  499

APPENDIX 11.  Organizations Assisted by Members of the Fraser House Research Group on an Individual or Workshop Basis - 1965  504

APPENDIX 12. A Comparison of Goffman’s ‘Total Institutions and Fraser House  505

APPENDIX 13. Features of Fraser House That Were Neither Present in the Paul and Lentz’s American Research nor Referred to by the American Researchers (Paul and Lentz 1977). 511

APPENDIX 14. A List of Advisory Bodies and Positions Held by Neville  513

APPENDIX 15. Participants in the Watson’s Bay Festival (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 3) 515

APPENDIX 16. The Range of Events and Activities Teed up as Part of the Centennial Park Festival. 516

APPENDIX 17.  Terms Listed in the Natural Business Concepts Lexicon   517

APPENDIX 18.  Globalocal Realplay - Healing Nightmares  519

APPENDIX 19. A List of Laceweb Functional Matrices Most of Them Dating From the Late Sixties and Early Seventies  523

APPENDIX 20. Governments and the Facilitating of Grassroots Wellbeing Action   526

APPENDIX 21. Nexus Groups’ Constitution   530

APPENDIX 22. Excerpts From an Aboriginal Woman’s Diary  536

APPENDIX 23.  A List of Some of the Activities Used in Cultural Healing Action   537

APPENDIX 24.  A Summary of Ken Yeomans’ 1992 Petford Keyline Survey  538

APPENDIX 25. Some of Neville’s Actions Leading to the UN Funded Gathering  539

APPENDIX 26. One Fortnight’s Laceweb Action in the Atherton Tablelands  539

APPENDIX 27.  The Rapid Creek Project 542

APPENDIX 28. Extegrity - Guidelines for Joint Partner Proposal Application   543

APPENDIX 29. Inter-people Healing Treaty Between Non-Government Organizations and Unique Peoples  554

APPENDIX 30. The Young Persons Healing Learning Code  557

APPENDIX 32. A list of Laceweb Aspects as a ‘New Social Movement’ 561

APPENDIX 33. Possible Ways Laceweb Differs From Latin American New Social Movements  562

APPENDIX 34. Cape York Communities Aboriginal Youth Living Well Project 563

APPENDIX 35. Laceweb Ethics  567






Neville Yeoman's affection for and empathy with the original inhabitants of Australia began very early in his life when, at the age of 3, he was saved by an Aborigine after he had wandered off and become lost in the bush in far north Queensland. This rescue from certain death, laid the foundations for his later work with indigenous communities as a carer, with an intense interest in the peoples and their cultures. He was a co-healer rather than a prescriber and believed in approaching the problems of mental health, alcoholism and drug addiction from a community perspective. He devoted much of his life to providing counselling and treatment to those most underprivileged and handicapped especially women, alcoholics and drug addicts. After 1975, he extended these activities to northern Australia, from the Atherton Tablelands to the Kimberleys, from Arnhem Land to Central Australia. In a sense it was a repetition of his childhood years when his family travelled like "gypsies" throughout the northern parts of Australia with his prospecting father.


Neville Yeomans was born in Sydney on 7 October 1928 to Percival Alfred ("P.A.") and Rita Yeomans. It was the depression and life was hard.  His father, "P.A." Yeomans, a mining engineer (who later became famous for his contributions to agriculture including Keyline Farming, City Forest, Shakaerator plough and other agricultural developments) took the family around northern Australia trying their luck at prospecting. These were important years for Neville Yeomans when many aspects of his character were molded.          


The vagabond existence of the family meant that they were never in the one place for long. Experiences such as attending 13 schools in one 12 month period, taught him that friendships were ephemeral and superficial.


He completed his schooling at Scotts College in Sydney and then went to Sydney University from where he graduated as a Bachelor of Science (Biology) in 1948. He wanted to work with and heal people and he went on to obtain his Bachelor's degree in Medicine and Surgery in 1956. But it was people's minds that fascinated him most and he completed a Diploma in Psychological Medicine in 1959. In the same year he won an overseas scholarship that enabled him to meet with some of the World's leading psychiatrists. Neville Yeomans was a brilliant and sensitive man who understood things in their context, and he had an ability to see things from different perspectives to those commonly held.


He was appalled by the methods used at the time to treat psychiatric disease (especially shock treatment which he regarded as a crime) and on his return from overseas he established and became the Director of Fraser House at North Ryde Psychiatric Clinic, Australia's first family Therapeutic Community with accommodation for some 86 adults and children. It was a revolutionary contextual approach that treated psychiatric disease on a family and community basis instead of treatment of just the individual. Patients were able to be rehabilitated and return to society rather than being locked away out of sight and restrained with drugs and straight-jackets. Many of his peers did not understand this radical approach to treatment and Neville was frequently vilified for being out of step with the main stream of things. It is interesting to note that 40 years later, his approach to psychiatric treatment has become the norm rather than the exception.


During the period from 1959 to 1972, he ran "healing community" courses for Aboriginal and Islander peoples in Sydney, in country New South Wales and at Alice Springs in Central Australia.


He was the Co-ordinator of Community Mental Health  for New South Wales Health Department from 1965 to 1970. He published many papers on psychiatric treatment (which are now held in the Mitchell Library in Sydney) and with a colleague, wrote a book "Fraser House: Theory Practice and Evaluation of a Therapeutic Community."  published by Springer, New York (1969).


As his interest in community work developed, he completed a Diploma in Sociology at the University of New South Wales in 1963, to better understand the social aspects of human responses. He also broadened his interests to studying other cultures and their values and, among other things, joined the Australia Eurasian Association in the late 1960's, and followed his passion for multiculturalism. He regarded Australia as a "cooking pot" rather than a "melting pot" of cultures, cooking up a new and better culture for the future! It was on a platform of multiculturalism that he stood for the seat of Philip (Liberal, Sydney) in the 1972 elections and gained sufficient votes not to lose his deposit, but failed to gain the seat.


Not content with his already numerous qualifications he went on to complete a Bachelor of Law degree from the University of New South Wales in 1975 and was admitted to the Bar. In spite of this, he was more interested in mediation than litigation and closely studied the mediation systems used in China. He studied Japanese and Chinese languages and travelled overseas to Asia, Europe and the Americas on several occasions over the years. He was an avid supporter of Bliss Symbolics, an international sign language based on symbols.


Neville Yeomans was drawn more and more to the area he grew up in and in 1975 he moved back to north Queensland where he became engrossed in working with Aboriginal people. He conducted a private psychiatric counselling and family therapy practice, facilitated community support for Aboriginal and Ethnic groups, established "Healing Haven" houses in North Queensland and assisted in the creation of a black women's shelter in Cairns.


In the early 1980's he became interested in and a keen qualified practitioner of Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) which was a revolutionary way of treating emotional states and of helping people overcome psychiatric illness and addictions. He and a friend, Terry Widders, set up NLP Centres in Cairns, Townsville in Queensland and Bondi Junction in Sydney. Neville Yeomans continued to pay the price of being a pioneer of new ideas and was regarded as a pariah by many of his professional colleagues in the establishment, with many refusing to refer patients to him.


In 1987 he was a consultant to Petford Aboriginal Training Farm in far North Queensland and from 1989 to 1994 he facilitated camp-outs/Intercultural Healing Training festivals in the Atherton Tablelands and at the Petford Aboriginal Training Farm. In 1990 he was an Adviser to the Australian South Sea Islander United Council. He was on the Steering Committee for Training on Torture and Trauma in 1994 and conducted a three day training course in Darwin. His working career came to an end in 1997 in Darwin where he was discovered sick with bladder cancer by his youngest son, and brought back to Sydney for treatment.


Neville Yeomans was a very intelligent, passionate and insightful person with a deep sense of purpose and an ability to focus absolutely on the job in hand, a characteristic that often made it difficult for those closest to him. He was also an introspective, artistic and aesthetic person who loved music (he played the clarinet) and art and he wrote poetry on a regular basis from the mid 1960's. Many of the poems demonstrate his sharp wit and sense of fun. The hundreds of poems he wrote, which give glimpses of the man within, will be published shortly. His passion was to treat people in need, his skill was his ability to engage with people and to make suggestions for change. His dying wish was to leave a legacy of clinics for Aboriginal people to enable them to help themselves. Neville Yeomans died in Brisbane on 30 May 2000 following a painful struggle with cancer. He spent his final days at home, surrounded by members of his family and friends. He is survived by his two brothers, two half-sisters, five children from two dissolved marriages, and eight grandchildren.


Peter N. Carroll

Leura, N.S.W.








Examples of the Early

Social Action


Isomorphic Metaphor


Therapeutic Community


Fraser House


Bondi Junction Network

Geoff Guest at Petford

Small Island Gathering

Jail Groups

Group Work

Fraser House Groups

Human Relations Groups

Bondi Junction groups

Petford Groups

Small Island Gathering

Jail Groups

Trauma Support Groups

ConFest Groups

Family Therapy contexts

Healing Ways:


Work Therapy







Cultural Keyline


Cultural Healing Action



Laceweb Healing Ways













Family therapy




Fraser House:

 Committee work


 Bowling Green

Suicide Support

Domiciliary visits


All of listed action


Festivals, happenings, events, parties


Laceweb sharings










Examples of early social action


Fraser House; Small Therapeutic Community Houses; Laceweb action



Letters to global governance

Jail Groups



This PhD


All metaphoric action


New Years Eve Party

Rainforest campouts

At Small Island Gathering


Tapped me into Laceweb sharings in Qld. and Darwin Top End; Balmain Work-shops; other Sydney work-shops with Neville; in Australian South Sea Islander Communities; personal co-learning



Isomorphic metaphor



Engaging me in family therapy contexts


Watsons Bay; Centennial Park; Paddington; Cambelltown; Aquarius at Nimbin; Cooktown

ConFest; Aboriginal & Islander Therapeutic Community Gathering; Small Island Gathering;



Community Markets



Paddington; Yungaburra

Rapid Creek



Paddington, Yungaburra, Rapid Creek; St. Andrews (Vic) Channon (NSW)




Asia Club; Watsons Bay Gathering; Laceweb Networking; Rio Earth Summit


Small Island Gathering; Laceweb Networking among Aboriginals, Torres Strait Islanders, Australian South Sea Islanders, Hmong, West Papuans, Bougainvillians, and East Timorese Communities; linking in Malaysia, Thailand and Fiji




Fraser House Family Friendship networking; Self help Groups; Laceweb Action


Bondi Junction; Laceweb Action – Atherton/Cairns, Rapid Creek; Byron Bay for Small Island, Australian South Sea Islander Communities;


Functional Matrices/Self Help Groups


Mingles; Connexion; Chums; Inma Nelps; Nexus Groups; Funpo,

UN-Inma; etc.


Mingles; Inma Nelps; Nexus Groups; Funpo,

UN-Inma; Ematrix; C4OS














Examples of early social action


P.A. Yeomans action

Use of Keyline at Festivals






Isomorphic metaphor



Aboriginal & Islander Therapeutic Community

Gathering; visit to Nevallan and Yobarnie;


Interaction with Ken, Allan and Stephanie Yeomans


Interfacing with Dominant System


Fraser House; Community Mental Health; Psychiatric study group; Rio-Earth Summit


Global-local Realplay; Letters to Global governance bodies, RHSET, NACADA; Extegrity documentation;

Canberra briefings; mentoring of CEO’s of multinational organizations;


UNICEF expert study group; SE Asia Oceania Psycho-social Emergency Response Network.


Interfacing with business






Business Cultural Keyline Study Group;

Asia link Business Study Group



Current versions of the Business Cultural Keyline Study Group (Ematrix & C4SOS); Lexicon


Everyday life action







Neem Production

Tree Oil Extraction



Laceweb action





Mentoring of CEO’s of multinational organizations



Laceweb action Sydney, Melbourne, Byron Bay, Atherton and FNQ, Darwin Top End, Malaysia, Thailand, Fiji; Jail Groups







Local Governance


Examples of early social action



Fraser House; Small Therapeutic Community Houses, Small Island Gathering; Aboriginal & Islander Therapeutic Community Gathering


Isomorphic metaphor




Small Island Gathering; Aboriginal & Islander Therapeutic Community Gathering; ConFest; Jail Groups


Micro Gatherings/events


Fraser House



Asia Ball


Blackmountain; Jail Groups Yungaburra; ConFest Site Trips








                                                                                     Male    Female  Total

1  Disorders Caused by or Associated                                                                       

    with Impairment of Brain Tissue


Acute and Chronic brain disorders                                  0          0          0

Mental deficiency, mild with epilepsy                               1         0         1


Disorders of psychogenic Origin


Psychotic Disorders

Affective Reactions:

Manic Depressive reaction depressive type                   1          1          2                     

Schizophrenic Reactions:

Schizophrenic reaction, simple type                                3          8          11

Schizophrenic reaction, hebephrenic type                     0          3          3

Schizophrenic reaction, catatonic type                            2          2          4

Schizophrenic reaction, paranoid type                            3          6          9

Schizophrenic reaction, acute                                         

undifferentiated type                                                           1          2          3

Schizophrenic reaction, schizo-affective type                2          0          2


TOTAL                                                                                12       22       34


2   Psychoneurotic Disorders

         Psychoneurotic Reactions

Anxiety reaction                                                                  0          1          1

Conversion reaction                                                            0          1          1

Obsessive - compulsive reaction                                      1          1          2

Depressive  reaction                                                           2          2          4


TOTAL                                                                                  3          5          8


3   Personality disorders

          Personality Pattern Disturbances:

Inadequate personality                                                        0         1          1

Schizoid personality                                                            1          0          1

Sociopathic Personality Disturbances

Anti-social reaction                                                             3           2          5

Dissocial reaction                                                               1           2          3

Sexual deviations:

homosexuality                                                                      4          0          4

paedophilia                                                                           2          0          2

prostitution and bestiality                                                  0           1          1

Personality Trait Disturbances

Compulsive personality                                                      1          0          1


alcohol                                                                                   4          2          6

drugs (bromides; amphetamines;

narcotics)                                                                               1          1          2

Both alcohol and drugs                                                      4          1          5

TOTAL                                                                                21       10        31



COMPOSITE TOTAL                                                      37        37       74









As with all new work situations, so to working as a new nurse in this community means coming to grips with a degree of initial stress.  The job is not easy at first, and one thing is certain - it can only be done well by all staff members seeing themselves as members of a TEAM.  Only then can new tasks become tolerable and the difficulties surmountable.  This is the first and most important working rule to be learned, and with the acceptance of it everything else will tend to fall into place.


This basic point can’t be stressed too much, and new nurses are advised to lean heavily on the team in the first few weeks in particular. By communicating difficulties, responsibilities will be spread out and training will continue. Nothing has to be faced alone.


The staff team gives the example on which the patients will perforce model themselves. It has been a lesson well learned here, as in other therapeutic communities all over the world, that when the staff team pulls together the patients tend to do likewise, and from this comes the amalgamation of true community effort that results in success all along the line in the treatment program.


Perhaps the most immediate observation made by a nurse coming to work in this therapeutic community for the first time, is that the patients themselves have had a great deal of authority delegated to them. Indeed, in some matters they are virtually the sole authority. At first glance it will seem fantastic that patients assess and admit new patients; review progress and institute treatment procedures; make new rules and alter old ones; mete out discipline, etc.


To many new nurses and doctors as well, and particularly to those whose previous experience was connected with the physically ill in the general hospital field, or who come from psychiatric settings more formalized in approach, all of this will be right out of line with their training and role appreciation. Adjustment will have to be made, and acceptance that this is necessary is the first and most important step towards fitting into the altered (and ever changing) role required.


In sum, nurses here at Fraser House are not so much doing FOR the patients as working WITH and SHARING an experience. This is basically what is expected.


Understanding the reason behind the differences in work standards and altering roles helps - no one would be willing to change his work pattern in, or the why he sees himself in work without reasonable explanation.  If the therapeutic community can be viewed as necessary evolution change towards democratic self-discipline, and if the nurses’ role can be seen as becoming more therapeutic as it moves away from that of custodian towards autonomy for the patients, then the first step is made.




In the basic role of the nurse in Fraser house is that of therapist and this means accepting the patients as worthwhile and worthy of help and so, aiming to change their deviant behavior and the deviant ways they see themselves or others.  The nurse also is a representative of society, and becomes involved with patients in order to return their neurotic, psychotic or other deviant behavior to the norm of this society.


The nurse remains as much a therapist in being with one patient or with an informal group of patients as in formal group therapy.  To be a therapist means to express real caring and times, discipline about patients.  Training in psycho and socio-therapeutic techniques is a continuing process and the nurse enters into research work and the domiciliary field as well.  The nursing staff makes up the largest portion of the staff team and has 24-hour close interpersonal contact with the patients.  The role is vital, and in many ways is the most important.




Nurses are assigned in teams to regional areas at the moment  - Lane Cove, Ryde, Rest of North Shore, Other Areas.  Each regional team is expected to be responsible for knowing their area, its problems and helping agencies etc..  Moreover nurses in each team are expected to come to know all in-patients and outpatients of that area in; to be specially involved in the appropriate regional small groups, both in the community and in the Unit; to record progress notes on their regional patients; be part of both for medical officer and follow-up committee planning for the patients of their region.


Nurses working in community and social psychiatry ‘steal’ many of the roles of psychiatrists, psychologists, medical offices, sociologists and social workers.  This gives the nurse much more power to initiate and decide and also the accompanying responsibility.


So the role of the nurse in Fraser house is seen as complex and wholly therapeutic, using a team approach in a therapeutic community to set the climate for personality change and social reorganization.


The new nurse will at first learn various areas, and these will be filled in to fit into shape as the tour of duty lengthens. An hour or so will be spent with a senior staff member on the first day for initial induction discussions, and the newcomer is paired off to work with a nurse who is versed in Unit procedure. Experience has shown how the patients actually give a great deal of help to new staff in aiding in their orientation. The new nurse will receive plenty of support to fit into the community. Fraser House traditions are now well established. There are no great dissatisfactions to overcome.


Nurses are on the staff to work as members of a therapeutic team, and to receive a training that has profitable personal and career rewards. Better training and greater work satisfaction for staff are basic aims in therapeutic communities.




The significance of group therapy in Fraser House may be gauged by the fact that there are about three thousand groups structured in a year involving twice this number of man-hours by the nursing staff. Reporting sessions, attended by nursing staff follow each of these groups, also consume more man-hours devoted to analysis and interpretation of each group, and exchange of information brought out by these groups. These reporting sessions are also for continuous training in all aspects of community and social psychiatry


Small groups are made up of from eight to twelve people, and are allocated daily. These allocations are made to conform to different patterns according to age and marital state, according to social class and marital state, according to sex and marital state. Also, there are intergenerational groups consisting of patients and their families, of each medical officer attached to the Unit, and groups made up of ‘withdrawn’ patients.


The unstructured groups are special groups held for particular patients for various reasons, e.g., they may be planned and scheduled for certain times during the day or night when a patient’s relatives arrive from the country. Or they may be spontaneous, when a relative arrives unexpectedly. Or they may be held as and when a particular patient, or patient family becomes disturbed over some crisis which arises.




The role of small group therapist and observer has always been the province of the nurse in Fraser House, and represents part of the rise in therapeutic status. Nurses have become therapists in their own right.


The first essential in taking a group is to see it as a meeting, and like all meetings, there is a need for a chairman to conduct affairs and keep issues to the point.


The initial function of the therapist is to see that the group functions as a group. It may be necessary for him to be quite directive in order to achieve this in some groups, but on the other hand it may just happen anyway even if he adopts a completely passive and wordless role. How active or passive, directive or non-directive the therapist is or chooses to be, may be influenced by many things – e.g., the attitude or mood of the group itself and tensions built up prior to and during its running; the type of group and purpose, or the themes introduced during the group. The therapists own personality is a basic factor which determines handling, and this may vary from day to day depending on the therapist’s mood, and also on his attitude to the type of group or even some of the people contained in it.


It should be said here that, whilst one might be influenced to some extent by the way certain therapists conduct the group, it is inadvisable and unwise, and indeed well nigh impossible for one therapist to copy another, for the previously stated reason that the therapist’s own personality is a basic factor in determining the handling of groups. So that even if one decided on a particular therapist as ones ‘idol’, one should not attempt to emulate too closely. Because of this ‘personality’ factor and other rather intangible factors, there are not many rigid rules which can be generalized to apply to all groups, but the following can be applied to most:




If a theme is introduced, and it is considered to be not too superficial or inappropriate, the group should pay some attention to it, and not change the theme to another without good reason. If an attempt to change the theme is made, it may be done deliberately by a patient for a fairly obvious reason (such as a personality clash with someone involved in the previous theme), or a less obvious reason such as an unconscious identification and a consequent wish to avoid the theme. It may also be done through plain insensitivity on the part of the person making the attempt at the change. There are many reasons for these moves, and it is the therapist’s role to decide on the dynamics of the situations and then to make use of them by feeding them straight back into the group at the time, and if necessary, to make an interpretation of the dynamics operating in the events and occurrences.


It is also in the province of the therapist to direct the group away from superficial themes or from discussing themes in a superficial manner. The therapist, in order to discourage superficiality, may find it necessary to commence the group immediately he enters the room, by physically structuring the group in such a way that he gains attention, establishes some kind of control, and incidentally builds some initial tension within the group. This, of course is not always necessary or desirable, but is often helpful in dealing with groups of teenagers who tend to spread themselves around the room, put their feet up on chairs, and throw matches and cigarettes about. These practices in themselves are quite harmless, but in group are often used as avoiding tactics, and are apt to wreck and render valueless the group itself. So the therapist can avert these disruptions when he enters the room by making everyone get up and draw their chairs into a tight circle in the center of the room and disallowing feet up on chairs.


In general, the therapist should make use of what is going on in each particular group at the time it is taking place. He has first to be able to recognize what is going on and he can only do this through observation and experience. The way he uses these things which are going on within the group depends to a large extent on the therapist himself – again the personality factor. Even though a therapist is inexperienced, and perhaps not very confident, he should keep in mind that he brings something very valuable to the group with him – something which no one else can do in the same way – the sum total of his own unique life experience. When used with confidence, this is a very powerful force which all nurses have at their disposal.




If most of the group is involved in interaction, it goes without saying that they are also interested. However, interest can be very high even though there is not much interaction. Look at their faces, their feet, their hands, their respiration, the way they sit, and it will be known if they are interested or not. Interaction may not be high if the therapist has found it necessary to be active or directive. This sometimes must be the case.




There will usually be varying amounts of tension as the group progresses, both from the group as a whole, and from individual members. Silences usually build up while tension is mounting, and the best way to use this tension is not to break these silences; let the members of the group do it as they will when they can no longer stand the tension – and then see what is released with the tension and make use of it.




The mood of a group is sometimes sustained throughout, but more often it changes, ranging through many emotions and frequently depending to some extent on the build up and release of tension, the themes discussed and the manner of the discussion, the interaction and the interest, and the cross-identification of those who interact. The role adopted by the therapist is also important here. Once again, the emotions which set the mood for the group are used.








Whereas much has been achieved over the years in the way of explanation and handling of individual and small group difficulties, little is to hand to clarify the acknowledged emotional forces and the psychotherapeutic techniques of large community groups.


Most individual maladjustments can be readily recognized by seeing a personality at conflict with himself and his environment. Small groups portray the ‘family’ setting and inter-personal interaction. But ‘Big Groups’ forming as they do the backdrop to all therapy in this Unit, are not explainable adequately in the term of psychology or psychiatry previously applied to the individual patient or even to the classical group situation.


The sciences of sociology and social psychology, with their study of whole collections of people and the interplay of these groupings within entire societies, are used to explain both these dynamics of the Big Groups and the therapeutic directions of the whole community. Theories of behavior of crowds and audiences apply to the Big Groups in particular.


The techniques used in handling these meetings are principally our own and have evolved through testing and retesting of basic theories by adoption and ‘trimming’ of those found successful by some leaders, and by constant discussion and evaluation of the problems these community groups pose.


The community meetings held at Fraser House are of two main types and a third is gradually evolving. Morning community groups have two main therapeutic functions; personality change is the aim of four meetings, while social control is the focus of the Thursday morning administrative group. Evening Big Groups, though not compulsory, are invariably well attended by in-patients. But by far, the majority attending can be classified as outpatients and these receive the bulk of the attention. With family therapy as a principle, the projective interplay of the various families present characterizes these meetings to such a degree as to almost typify the aim of the evening Big Groups.


The setting is a large hall (the Center Block) in which clear speaking is adequate, central to both wings of the building. Seating is in two rows at the sides and one end with a single row at the end nearest the entrance door. The group leader usually sits in the center of this row, but is free to move according to his or her dictates. All of the chairs face centrally so that, as much as possible, everyone is in view and speakers can face each other. But principally the people are shoulder-to-shoulder as in an audience as well as being members of a single crowd - usually numbering about one hundred persons.


Two members of the nursing staff (one male - one female) observe and record the meeting from a detached point behind the back row.


Other staff members (medical, nursing, research, etc) intersperse themselves among the patients, paying particular attention to the three inner corners (notorious geographically for the most destructive and resistive sub-groups) but leaving the doorway clear of staff. Portion of a row is reserved here to lessen the interruption made by latecomers.


It has become traditional that the four ‘therapeutic’ Big Groups commence with a reading of the ‘Ward Notes’ by one of the patients. On Thursdays this is deferred till after the various committee reports and elections. In essence these ward notes serve the purpose of an informal Unit newspaper and comprises all manner of notifications from grouches about yesterday’s foodstuff to staff warnings against suspected ‘conmanship’.


Usually the therapist then allows the group to enter into spontaneous ‘free floating’ discussion until a general interconnecting theme is apparent. This may then be pursued with promptings towards interaction between different generations or social classes or psychiatric opposites – or perhaps to tie in together for mutual support those with similar difficulties, personally or because of family or life-crisis situation.


At times the focus might fall on one particular patient or family to highlight a special need, and it is quite common for sub-groups or cliques to merit attention. These latter are constantly forming, breaking and re-forming, and the group leader much of the time finds it impossible to be aware of these changes and undercurrents. The interspersing of staff members throughout does much to obviate this as these moves can be discussed later in the reporting session, or if urgent, brought to the attention in the group by the staff member aware of the moves. Most meetings see the group as a whole reacting much like and audience to a few main actors. This can be constructive as an insight-gaining process as the personal, intra and inter-family or sub-group projections are portrayed and leadership values rise or fall. At other times when matters affecting the internal security of the community arise or pressures are brought to bear from outside sources, interpersonal differences are dropped for combined feeling and action and the Unit becomes united as its projection against threat is shown. So the audience-type reaction displaces to behavior more attributable to that of a crowd. When these crowd-like emotional forces move the whole community, the opportunity is presented to harness these towards a therapeutic goal which can do more in a single hour towards personality change for more people than many months of other therapy. Herbert Blumer says of these forces:


‘People become aroused and more likely to be carried away by impulses and feelings; hence rendered more unstable and irresponsible. In collective excitement, the personal make-up of individuals is more readily broken and in this way the conditions prepared for the formation of new forms of behavior and for the re-organization of the individual. In collective excitement, individuals may embark on lines of conduct which previously they would not have thought of, much less dared to undertake. Likewise, under its stress and with opportunities for the release of tension, individuals may incur significant re-organization in the sentiments, habits and traits of personality (Blumer and Shibutani 1970).’


When both the staff and patients are working well together in the Unit, a peak of enthusiasm is reached at times when everyone sees almost any move at all as being gainful. New enterprises are embarked upon with an eagerness that is almost inspired and success is a certainty. Whereas perhaps a month earlier the same move would have met an equally certain failure. All improvements in expanded therapy services and the patient-government structure (and the recent acquisition of the Unit vehicle) have been adopted at such times.


The opposite of gain is loss and this is felt most acutely in a feeling-wave by the entire community at a time of bereavement, deprivation or mourning – when a fellow-patient’s close relative dies; rejecting parents spurn pleas for help; or there has been a serious or fatal attempt at suicide. Here the all-pervading shared sadness can give rise to depressives becoming overwhelmed with emotional forces of loss and breaking into bitter tears as a sign of externalizing their feelings of aggression and loneliness. The sincere sympathy given by fellow-patients and therapist at these times can do much to consolidate future lessening of inhibition while false exaggeration of hope is avoided.


Again, when as a whole the Big Group is swayed by frustration, contagious aggression and excitement result; just as contagious as the feelings of fear and panic experienced due to a shared threat anywhere.


The recognition and use of these crowd feelings by the therapist are usually intuitive. The leader must ‘feel’ these and employ them – they are of the greatest value when utilized therapeutically towards corrective emotional experience. This can be rated as either an individual, a family, the whole group, or any combination of these being helped in this direction.


Community meetings are followed by a report by the two official observers, and comment by all staff members present, including the therapist who took the group. Points assessed are:


o   Mood

o   Theme

o   Value and interaction

o   Therapist’s role

o   Techniques employed


From these ‘post-mortems’ comes much of the knowledge needed. At the moment this seems by no means exhaustive. The aim must be always to look at the community in the ‘BIG’ – as a whole and this certainly is no easy matter.




The Fraser House Therapeutic Community is a sub-community of Lane Cove and Ryde aimed at all the different social problems of these areas. There is an inherent movement towards change resulting from the emotional contact of people with different problems.  This change is a therapeutic change if the atmosphere is one of help, respect for the worthwhileness of each person, and discipline where necessary. A professional man, father of a schizophrenic girl, once abused the patients and the Unit, because he was sick of people of lower education etc. telling him what to do. His education and professional knowledge were not in doubt, but his capacity as a loving trusting father was. Those like him in age and education had tried and failed to change him in the past. Those unlike him could do so with much more effect.


This therapeutic community attempts to reproduce normal life in many ways, particularly in allowing the development of emotional storms (as they occur in families) and in not enforcing overly good behaviour, as is the usual hospital pattern. Like normal life too, there are limits and so effective discipline is a major part of the program, especially for those with antisocial or hostile problems.


The process of change for the disturbed patient and family may be described in many ways. One is that the Unit attempts to provide emotionally corrective experiences in the conflict area. This can be seen in the spreading of a theme within a group or in the contagion of feeling within the Unit that always most deeply affects those with the problems in the area of conflict which set off the emotion. When sexual interference becomes an emotional topic, the experienced therapist can tell at a glance all those women and girls who have had a similar experience - it screams from their faces. They can then be helped to face this and all the covering up about it, in them and in their family.


 Success for a therapist is now known to depend very much on how much the patient realizes that the therapist cares. This cannot be acted by the therapist – and here lies the importance of learning to relax and be oneself and express oneself in the therapeutic situation


Caring for the patient does not mean loving and accepting everything he does. You don’t care for someone if you let them wreck themselves or harm others. It means coming to see and feel that the patient is a person worth helping and changing. It means to accept the person, but reject their deviant problems (e.g., love a depressed person, but NOT their depression – want to change their depression). Particularly it means rejecting abnormal behavior, particularly that which is harmful to others. So here caring will mean love and discipline.


There are some points which help in the therapeutic approach to whole families in groups:


Aim to help the whole family

Help them not to push the most deviant member down when they are under tension

Encourage parents of the presenting patient to talk about their difficulties with their own parents, and each other.

If the presenting patient has improved more than the rest of the family, suggest they forget his problems and talk about their own

Make sure the different generations in the family attend different small groups much of the time

The overt symptoms in the presenting patient usually indicate the key conflict for all the family

Suggest family members who insist they have no problems, that you would like them to be more selfish and talk about themselves anyway

Don’t reject the parents because of what you see they have done to their child – find out what he has done to them

No parent ever purposefully wrecks his or her child. They should not be blamed for a tragedy they were caught up in

Don’t adopt any of the above techniques unless you feel it


The emotional comfort and satisfaction of the Unit staff is one of the most significant features of the therapeutic program. The numerous staff meetings aim to foster this. Specifically their role is to prevent the development of covert, hidden conflict between staff members about patients. Such conflicts are proven to result in overt patient disturbance. The staff remains the most powerful members of a therapeutic community and their welfare and comfort are of paramount importance.







Admitting Committee (devolved from the psychiatrist)



Interviewing people seeking admittance

Identifying problems and problem areas

Specifying the type of treatment

Specifying period before review

Specifying conditions of admission

Ensuring prospective patients know the requirement for both patients and their families and friends to attend 12 groups before the patient’s admission

Making a record of all the above details which is presented at the following Thursday’s Administration Big Group.


Membership: Residents eligible for election upon being six weeks in the Unit.

The split between residents and outpatients is unavailable.


Staff present:            Medical officer and members of the nursing staff


Progress Committee (The senior committee - devolved from the psychiatrist)


Discussing and assessing individual patients and families

Discussing problem areas

Suggesting treatment procedures

Confirming, altering or changing treatment

Maintaining close liaison with Rehabilitation Committee


Membership: Residents eligible for election after being two months in the Unit. The Split between residents and outpatients is unavailable.


Staff present:            Senior male nurse and senior female nurse


Pilot Committee (devolved from director/psychiatrist)



Attending all other committees

Investigating all other committees

Reporting to Progress, Parliamentary or Big Group on irregularities or failing activities


(Formed March 1965)


Membership: Residents who have considerable functionality and a hence likely

to be leaving the Unit in the next few months. The Split between

residents and outpatients is unavailable.



Staff present as representatives:  Senior and Junior charge nurses


Parliamentary Committee (devolved from senior charge nurse)



Liaising between residents and staff

Sustaining paramount emphasis on democratic government, rights, dignity and freedom

Presenting staff with a uniform view of resident feelings about the Unit’s functioning

Airing criticisms of the efficiency and policy of any committee

Hearing applications of resignation from any committee.

Holding elections for vacant positions on any committee at start of Thursday Administration Big Group


Membership:                         All residents on structured committees.

                                                            The Split between residents and outpatients is unavailable.


Staff present as representatives:  Senior and junior charge nurses


Ward Committee (devolved from nursing staff)



Maintaining discipline

Ensuring ward cleanliness (as adjunct to domestic and maintenance staff)

Being responsible for patient cleanliness and welfare

Discussing treatment procedures with the Progress Committee

Meting out justice when rules are broken

Drawing up work rosters

Ensuring cleaning duties done

Monitoring resident’s behavior

Permitting or denying weekend leave based on behavior

Instilling responsibility, initiative and independence


Membership: Residents who have considerable functionality and a hence likely to be leaving the Unit in the next few months. The split was 8 residents and

                                                4 outpatients.


Staff present as representatives:  Nurses


Teenager’s Committee



Promoting a spirit of friendship amongst teenagers in the Unit

Organizing a program of group outings and activities

Enforcing peer discipline

Assuming a group parenting role

Liaising with Ward Committee re inter-generational issues


Membership:                                     Restricted to members under 20 years of age

Split between residents and outpatients unavailable.


Staff present as representatives:  Nurses (check)



Outpatients, Relatives and Friends Committee (devolved from Social Worker)



Supporting the evolving of local psycho-social support networks

Maintaining locality based card index with names and addresses and typical travel modes

Providing a coordinated transport system to enable more regular attendance at groups

Providing assistance to outpatients within their own district

Providing relatives and outpatients with a voice in Unit management

Liaising with Follow-up Committee


Membership: Family and friends of inpatients, and inpatients. Split - 2 outpatients


Staff present as representatives:  Social worker


Rehabilitation Committee (devolved from Social Worker)



Assisting discharged patients finding work

Arranging accommodation

Liaising with the Progress Committee re progress and employment prospects




Residents who have considerable functionality and a hence likely to be leaving the Unit in the next few months. Split between residents and outpatients unavailable.


Staff present as representatives:              Social worker



Follow-up Committee (devolved from Social Worker)



Establishing close liaison between inpatients and their relatives and friends

Organizing and financing home visits by resident domiciliary group members and searches for AWOL residents

Administering emergency aid

Liaises with Outpatients, Relatives and Friends Committee



Residents who have considerable functionality and a hence likely to be leaving the Unit in the next few months. Split - 4 residents and  2 outpatients


Staff present as representatives:              Social worker


Activities Committee (devolved from Occupational Therapist)



Arranging individual, small group or whole community occupational therapy for therapeutic and disciplinary purposes; examples: pantry duty, assisting the librarian, collecting workers meals, emu parades - a line swoop through the Unit picking up rubbish as everyone walks through; a tender was won by the residents to build a bowling green at the unit; in 1964 a contract was obtained to pack light globes.

Liaison with the Progress, Rehabilitation and Ward Committees and staff relating to appropriate occupational therapy


Membership:                                     After resident has made considerable move

to functionality. Information on split

between residents and outpatients



Staff present as representatives:  Nurse/occupational therapist (check)


Finance Committee (devolved from Administration - accounting, banking and welfare)



Holding surplus funds

Allocating these funds as necessary to other committees

Monitoring all committee funds and recalling funds surplus to need

Safeguarding the Units patient welfare funds

Inspecting cash records and cash balances of all committees at weekly meeting

maintaining Fraser House Finance Committee bank account

Being the Unit’s accountant, banker and internal Welfare Officer in respect of money

Assisting people who mishandle money towards greater responsibility while in office


Membership:                                     The treasurers of all of the other Committees


Staff present as representatives:  Administrative staff involved in accounting,

                                                            banking and internal welfare; Nurses.

                                                            At one stage the rule regarding the split

                                                            was 3 residents and 3 outpatients


Canteen Committee - devolved from Administration (accounting, banking and welfare) and Occupational Therapist



Contacting goods suppliers and ordering

Receiving goods from sales/delivery people

Serving patients, staff and visitors

Maintaining coin-in-the-slot soft drink machine

Supporting fellow Canteen Committee members who are isolates (e.g. depressed or schizophrenic residents)

Providing public relations role

Tallying up daily takings

Presenting weekly report at Administration Big Group

Generating surplus used to purchase van used in domiciliary visits and supplying petrol and maintenance


Membership:                         Restricted to members under 20 years of

                                                age. The split was 6 residents and

                                                2 outpatients


Staff present as representatives:  Nurse/occupational therapist



Social Committee




Arranging social activities both inside and outside the unit


            Membership:                                     Residents who had been 6 weeks or more

                                                in the Unit. The split was 3 female

                                                residents, 3 males residents and 3 outsiders


Staff present as representatives:  Nurse/occupational therapist




The Social Committee was disbanded a couple of times when there was no residents with flair for being on this committee. When some ‘live wires’ turned up as residents it would get restarted again.


Notice that the membership split ensured that outpatients were also represented and involved in the committee process with all of the benefits flowing from this in emerging them in the healing community process.





The nature of the universe

      (In the range ‘is basically good or makes sense’ through to ‘is

      basically bad or pointless’)

Human nature

      (In the range ‘good or sensible’ through to ‘bad or senseless’)

Can mankind change itself or be changed?

      (Yes, Perhaps or No)

Man-nature - what matters

Activity – Who do you take notice of

Direction –

 (Self, Others, What fits)

Degree –

Unimportant, moderate importance, important

Time important 

(Future , present, past)

Verticality place

(Above, level, below)

Horizontality place

(Centre, Between edges, out one edge)





A list of the many of the surveys and questionnaires that patients and outpatients were asked to complete. The page reference relates to Volume 11 of Neville Yeomans Collected Papers in the Mitchell Library –NSW  State Library, NSW.



p. 175            

p. 183            

p. 193            

p. 197            

p. 207            

p. 213            

p. 221            

p. 237            

p. 245            

p. 251            

p. 265            

p. 271            

p. 271            

p. 277

p. 283            

p. 291

p. 317            

p. 331            

p. 329

      p. 337


      p. 355

      p. 366

      p. 365

      p. 367

      p. 399

      p  399



Emergency Services Survey

Research Study Group Student Opinion Record

Course Assessment Record

Counsellor Opinion Record

Social Organization Study

Child Parent Group Reporting

Total Care Adjustment Record

Group Reporting Record

Landscape Planning Attitudes Questionnaire

Attitudes Towards Overseas Trade

Crime Attitudes

International Studies on Drug Dependence

Alcohol Attitudes Questionnaire

Personnel Study – Social Problems Record

Group Description Record

Follow-up Questionnaire

International Study on Family Planning

Attitudes Questionnaire

International Study on Handicapped Children

Patient and Family Questionnaire

Fraser House Opinion Survey – Psychiatric Research

Study Group

      Elderly People’s Attitudes Questionnaire

Attitudes to Mental Illness

Opinion Leaders Inventory – Fraser House Questionnaire

Opinion Leader Record

      Migrant Attitudes Questionnaire







Personal Adjustment Record  (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 6)

Social Health Record (Yeomans 1965, Vol 11)

General Adjustment Record

Child Adjustment Record

Family Adjustment Record

Group Reporting Record

Follow-up Record

Social Problem Record

Social Value Record

Opinion Leader Form






This Appendix contains Tables A, B and C listing fifty-seven of the extensive body of Neville’s research papers and monographs mentioned in his collected papers in the Mitchell Library. Many are undated though come from the 1959-1965 period. Table C lists research in association with others.




The Unit Career of Staff Members (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 2 p. 35.)


Whisperer’s Relationship - a Collusive Liaison (Yeomans 1965, Vol .5 p.38.)


A General Theory of Welfare Functions (Yeomans 1965, Vol .2 ,p. 38 - 40.)


File Note - Reference to a Suicide in Fraser House (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 2, p. 43.)


Network Therapy (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 5, p.40.)


Abotat - A Modification of the Thematic Apperception Test for Administration to Aborigines (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 125, p.67-69)


The Problem of Taking Sides – Taking the Side of or Supporting the Healthy Component (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 5, p.46 - 47.)


Power in Collective Therapy (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 5, p.52 - 54.)


Sydney Therapeutic Club (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 5, p.104.)


Follow Up Committee (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 5, p.106.)


Personal Adjustment Record (Yeomans 1965)


Personal Information Record (Yeomans 1965)


Early 1960’s. Social Values (Yeomans 1965)


The Psychiatrist’s Responsibility for the Criminal, the Delinquent, the Psychopath and the Alcoholic (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 50.)



Table A - Research by Neville in the early 1960’s



Research on Alcoholism – Theory and Administration – A Paper for the National Committee on Alcoholism – Adelaide Meeting of Medical Sub-Committee. Neville T. Yeomans Collected Papers 1965, Vol. 1, p.183 – 185. (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 1, p.183 - 185)


Collective Therapy – Audience and Crowd. Australian Journal of Social Issues 2. & 4. (Yeomans 1966,Vol. 1, p,187-188, Vol.12, p. 77, 87).


The Role of Director of Community Mental Health (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 66. )


Culture, Personality and Drug Dependence - The Problem of Drug Abuse in NSW. The Institute of Criminology, Sydney University Law School.  Seminar Working Paper No. 3 (Yeomans 1965, Vol .1 p. 297)


Social Categories in a Therapeutic Community (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 2 p. 1)



Mental Health in the Office - Institute of Administration - University of NSW (Yeomans, Vol.1 p.203-213)


The Sociology of Medicine 1967 - Synopsis of Community Health Services and Informal Patterns of Care (Yeomans (Unknown date), Vol 1, p. 215)


Incontinence Research (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 67-69)


The Nurses Self Image and its Implications - The Australian Nurses Journal Vol. 61 No. 4., April 1963 (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 94.)




Table A (Contd) - Research by Neville in the early 1960’s




The following Table B. lists further research and papers by Neville in the 1960’s.


1961. Treatment of Alcoholics and Drug Addicts in Fraser House Neurosis and Alcohol Unit (Yeomans 1961,  Vol. 2, p. 45.)


1963. Sociotherapeutic Attitudes to Institutions - Paper Presented at the State Psychiatric Services Clinicians’ Conference - 22 April 1963 (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 46, 60-61. )



1963. Letter of Congratulations to Fraser House Patients Regarding Patient’s Rules for Committees – Jan 1963 (Yeomans 1963, Vol. 2 p. 13.) 1963. Some Detail of Patient Government - 13 May 1963  (Yeomans 1963, Vol. 2 p. 25. )


1964. An Alcohol Treatment Program in Australia – A Paper Presented at the 27th International Congress on Alcohol and Alcoholism – 11 Sept 1964. Neville T. Yeomans Collected Papers 1965, Vol. 1, p.91. (Yeomans 1964, Vol. 1, p.91.)


1965. Post Graduate Psychiatry and the Social Sciences. In Kiloh, L.C. & Andrews, J.G. (eds.). Undergraduate and Post Graduate Teaching in Psychiatry. University of NSW Press Sydney (Yeomans 1965, Vol 12. p. 77. )


1965. Post Graduate Psychiatry and the Social Sciences. Teaching of behavioral Sciences, p.11. Neville T. Yeomans Collected Papers 1965, Vol. 1, p.165-181 (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 1, p.165-181.)


1965. Values Orientation and National Character (Yeomans 1965, Vol .1 p. 253 - 265).


1965. The Therapeutic Community in the Rehabilitation of the Aged. A Paper Presented to a Conference on Clinical Problems among Aged Patients, Held at Lidcombe State Hospital – 30 April 1965. (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 1, p.155-163).


1965. Cultural Values, Aboriginals and Mental Health – A Paper Prepared for the Third Congress of the Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 1, p.189-201)


1967 Value Orientation in Normal and Deviant Australians – A Revision of a Paper Read at the Annual Meeting of the Sociological Association of Australia and New Zealand January 1967 (Yeomans 1967, Vol .1 p. 225 - 241).


1967. A Community Developers’ Thoughts on the Fraser House Crisis (Yeomans 1967, Vol. 2, p. 46 - 48.)


1968 Coordinator Community Mental Health Dept of Public Health NSW. The Therapeutic Community in Rehabilitation of Drug Dependence - Paper Presented at the Pan Pacific Rehabilitation Conference 1968 (Yeomans 1968, Vol .1 p. 267 - 283)



1968. Draft of Speech on Social Problems to the Ionian Club Sydney – Introduction on the Origins of the Ionians (Yeomans 1968, Vol. 1 p. 291. )


1968. International Study on Attitudes to Drug and Alcohol Use (Yeomans 1968, Vol .1 p. 293)


1968. Mental Health and Social Change - Brief  File Note (Yeomans 1968, Vol .1 p. 295)




The following Table C lists research by Neville and other Fraser House Staff in the 1960’s.


Table C



Yeomans, N. T. & Psychiatric Research Study Group – Social Values Questionnaire, 1965 (Yeomans and Psychiatric Research Study Group 1965, Vol .1 p. 243 - 251)


Yeomans, N. T., Hay, R. G. early 1960’s. Psychiatric Epidemiology of Sydney – A Pilot Study - Medical Journal of Australia No 2 p. 986 (Yeomans and Hay 1965, Vol. 12, p. 77)


Yeomans, N. T., Hennessy, B. L., Bruen, W., early 1960’s. Suicide Study (Yeomans, Hennessy et al. 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 89. )


Yeomans, N. T. and the Fraser House Staff, early 1960’s. The Macquarie Health Project (Yeomans and the Fraser House Staff 1965, Vol. 12, p. 91.)


Yeomans, N. T., Hennessy, B. L., Hay, R. G., early 1960’s. Recent Developments in a Therapeutic Community (Yeomans, Hennessy et al. 1965, Vol. 12, p. 87. )


Yeomans, N. T., Daly, J., early 1960’s. Child – Parent Group Reporting Form (Yeomans and Daly 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 88.)


Clark, A. W., Yeomans, N. T., early 1960’s. Observations From an Australia Therapeutic Community (Clark and Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 88.)


Yeomans, N. T., Hennessy, B. L., 1965. Nursing Disturbance Study (Yeomans and Hennessy 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 88.)


Yeomans, N. T., Cockett, M., 1965. Leadership Study (Yeomans and Cockett 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 89.)


Yeomans, N. T., Johnson, J., 1965. A Study of Teenage Patients in Fraser House (Yeomans and Johnson 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 89.)


Yeomans, N. T., & Bruen, W., 1965. The Five Year Follow Up Study (Yeomans and Bruen 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 89.)


Yeomans, N. T.  Cockett, M. 1965. Ward Note Tabulation (Yeomans and Cockett 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 89.)


Yeomans, N. T. and the Fraser House Research Team, 1965. The Social Values Study (Yeomans and the Fraser House Research Team 1965,  Vol . 12,  p. 45, 89. )


Yeomans, N.T., Hanson, R., Dall, E. 1965. The Aboriginal and Ethnic Minority Study (Yeomans, Hanson et al. 1965,  Vol. 12, p. 45, 90.)


Yeomans, N. T. & Cockett, M., 1965. The Fijian Project (Yeomans and Cockett 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 90.)


Yeomans, N.T. & Cockett M. 1965s. Intra-familial Conflict – A Simple Questionnaire - Submitted to the Family Process Journal (Yeomans and Cockett 1965)


Yeomans, N.T. & Cockett, M. 1965s. Précis of Intra-familial Conflict – A Simple Questionnaire (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 1, p.91.)


Yeomans, N. T., Hennessy, B. L, Hay. R. G., 1966. Recent Developments in a Therapeutic Community With Assessment of Improved Technique For Introducing New Patients. (Yeomans, Hennessy et al. 1966, Vol. 12, p. 45. )


Yeomans, Neville. T., Cockett, Margaret, 1966. Intra-Familial Conflict – A sample Questionnaire (Yeomans and Cockett 1965, Vol. 12, p. 45, 87.)


Yeomans, N. T., Clark, A. W., Cockett, M., Gee, K.M., 1970. Measurement of Conflicting Communications in Social Networks. (Yeomans, Clark et al. 1970)



Table C.  Research and Papers by Neville and other Fraser House Staff






As an example of linking Fraser House to the wider community and vice versa, during 1965 assistance was given on an individual or workshop basis by members of the Fraser House Research Group to the organizations listed below (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 94.):



External Affairs Department

Anthropology Department – Sydney University

Department of Sociology NSW University

NSW Marriage Guidance Council

NSW Department of Education

Health Education Division of the Health Department of NSW

Australian School of Pacific Administration

Department of Law – Forensic Psychiatry – Sydney University

Hanover Center for Homeless Men – Melbourne

Victorian Council of Social Services

Melbourne University Research Workers

Victoria University - New Zealand

Research Council of the Foundation for Research and Treatment of Alcoholism



Organizations Assisted by Members of the Fraser House Research Group

on an Individual or Workshop Basis – 1965





       Total Institutions                                             Fraser House


The key fact of total institutions is ‘the handling of many human needs by the bureaucratic organization of whole blocks of people’ (p18).




The focus is the inmate (p 18).



In the three big chunks of life - work, play, and sleep - these happen in the same place, under a single authority. All phases of the daily round are done with a large group of the same people (p 17).



People are inmates and/or patients (p 17).







They are required to do the same thing together.


All are treated similarly (p 17).




All phases of the daily round are time bound and tightly scheduled (p 17).


This schedule of activities is imposed from above by explicit formal rulings by a body of officials (p 17).








The aim of this scheduling is bureaucratic convenience (p 17).



The key fact of Fraser House is the embracing and satisfaction of individual and the therapeutic community’s needs by the staff supporting and enabling residents taking responsibility for themselves.


The focus is the resident in his/her social (family and friends) network.


Essentially the same at Fraser House. However, residents were constantly been rotated through various small groups and patient run/controlled committees having differing mixes of people.



People are termed patients, residents or clients. While conscious of the potency of terminology within the wider hospital processes residents were ‘patients’ and all the documentation designated them as ‘patients.


As for two above.



Rather than being ‘treated’, people are ‘related to’ and each person is related to differently.


As with Fraser House.



While small groups and big group are required by officials, virtually every aspect of community life is determined by the residents via committee structures that are run by the residents, often with no staff as observers. A body of rules governs a large part of schedules and these are also determined by the residents.


The aim of the scheduling is to compel residents to enrich their psychosocial self and take responsibility for making decisions affecting the quality of their life and behaviour in community with others.


All the staff enforces the schedule of activities (p 17).







The schedule coalesces into a single rational plan designed to fulfil the official aims of the institution (the power of the fittest) (p 17).



There is a basic split between a large managed group (the inmates) and a small staff (p 18).



Both staff and inmates are in uniforms owned by the institution (p 18).


Staff work 8 hour shifts and are socially integrated into, and live outside (p 18).


Inmates live inside. Some may get passes

(p 18).





Inmates have no contact with the outside world or have restricted supervised contact or non-contact visits (p 18).






Each group tends to see each other in ‘narrow hostile stereotypes’ (p 18).








Social mobility between staff and inmates is grossly restricted (p 19).



Social distance is typically great and often formally prescribed (p 19).


Inmates are not given information about what is being discussed about them by staff (p 20).

Both residents and staff are responsible for ensuring adherence to the schedule. Issues relating to residents’ non-adherence to the schedule are resolved through resident committees and community processes, especially at Big Group


The schedule coalesces into a single sensible plan (survival of the fitting) designed by the residents to support residents’ self-help and community help towards psychosocial wellbeing.


While staff and inmates are in different roles, there is closeness between them including strong friendships.


Some staff and all inmates wear their own casual clothes.


As with Fraser House




While inmates live inside, some go out to work; some attend from 9 AM to 9 PM; others typically can get passes; most go home for weekends; many attend as outpatients.


A condition of being a resident at Fraser House is that family and friends have to attend Big Group and small groups as ‘clients’. Whole families were in residence, so for them, there was constant contact. Visits by family and friends to Fraser House outside of big group visits were restricted (were there social and conjugal visits?)


The staff patient distinction is always maintained (cleavage) although residents and staff see each other as individuals with unique abilities and potential. Everyone in both groups is a potential resource for everyone else. Staff seeks to have residents build upon their ecological bits.


Social mobility between staff and residents is possible.



Social closeness is typical and encouraged.


Communication is very open; anything may, be brought up in Big Group.


The Institution is deemed to belong to staff

(p 20).




The self is systematically, if often unintentionally, mortified (p 24).


People are stripped on entry through a series of abasements:


(i)   degradation

(ii)  humiliation

(iii) profanation of self (p 24)







On arrival people loose their clothes and end up nude, then given identical issue (all uniform); stuff that never belongs to you

(p 24).


The barrier between the inmate and the outside world marks the first curtailment of self (p 24).









The buildings and plant are designed to separate and control, and to segregate sexes (p 24).









In the outside world inmates may take a number of separate roles, and typically none will block their  performance and ties in another role (role segregation). Being inside automatically disrupts role scheduling. Staff determines inmate’s roles (p 24).





Every behaviour encroaches on every role and will be used to curtail and mortify self (p 24).


Role dispossession occurs (p 24).

Fraser House ‘belongs’ to the therapeutic community and all involved, including friends and relatives (attending as ‘outpatients’) are part of the therapeutic community.


The enrichment of self is pervasively built into every aspect of the Unit.


The initiation & admittance process was through the traditional North Ryde Hospital process. Once at Fraser House people are welcomed into the community through a series of bonding processes, examples:


Each person allocated buddies and room mates

Advised of Fraser House lore

Told slogans


Residents maintain their own clothes.






While being ‘inside’ and having friends and family required to visit, the absence of barriers in the therapeutic community makes enrichment of self through ecological interaction almost inevitable. Residents go on regular outside trips (as recreational activities and as domiciliary and crisis therapists). Some residents go to work. Most return home at weekends.


While the buildings and plant were a traditional design they were used in ways ensuring constant interaction between residents, between residents and staff, between residents and outpatients and to integrate and foster interaction between the sexes. The Dining Room and recreation rooms were located so as to maximize mingling.


While virtually everything is known by everybody (through the ‘bring it up in the group’ protocol), through the resident run committee process all residents help evolve the various roles within the community. Resident committees determine resident roles. People may volunteer for these roles and all play a part in deciding who participates for a time in the roles.


Every behaviour encroaches on every role and will be used to expand and enrich self.


Enriched and new role-taking is encouraged and role flexibility occurs.


Because of the institutions pervasive intrusion into virtually every aspect of inmate’s lives, the admission procedures include obedience tests and will-breaking contests in order to compel co-cooperativeness from the outset (p 26).



Inmates are likely to be stripped of their usual appearance and their ‘identity kit’ (p 30).


Inmates subject to indignities - examples:

.  must use spoon

.  must beg/humbly ask for little things

.  being teased, sworn at and ignored

   (p 230)


The boundary individuals place between their being and the environment is invaded and the embodiments of self are profaned (p 32).


Unavoidable contact with aliens (no choice) and contaminating of objects of self-feeling - such as one’s body, immediate actions, thoughts and possessions (p 36).





There is the violation of one’s informational preserve regarding self. During admission, information about past behaviour (especially discreditable facts) are collected and written up in dossiers available to staff (p 32).



While the schedule of activities is to be complied with, considerable freedom is given till the person is immersed in the community and does not want to leave. Then tough constraints are placed on mad and bad behaviour by staff and other residents.


Residents’ appearance is unchanged or they are encouraged to improve it.




Censure of any staff or resident subjecting anyone else to indignities.






As with Fraser House - though this is balanced by potential for all residents and staff being there to support residents’ self help. The embodiments of self are respected and celebrated.


Unavoidable contact with resident/staff enablers (no choice) and processes interrupting and sabotaging madness and badness towards decontaminating objects of self-feeling - such as one’s body, immediate actions, thoughts and possessions.


There is the violation of one’s informational preserve regarding self. During admission, information about past behaviour (especially discreditable and creditable facts) are collected and made available to staff and residents as part of local knowings of everyone in the therapeutic community. Any non-ecological use of this information is interrupted.


Inmates undergo mortification of the self by contamination of the physical kind - by forced interpersonal contact and social relationship

(p 36).







Enforced public character of visits by friends and relatives (p 38).




Contaminative exposure by having mail and phone calls monitored, limited and censored

(p 38).


Contaminative exposure by denouncing significant others, especially when others physically present (p 38).






The usual relationship between the actors and their acts is disrupted (p 41).




The above firstly by ‘looping’, where an agency creating a defensive response in inmates hones in on this response for its next attack. The reaction to the situation is collapsed back into the situation. Inmates can’t defend themselves by creating distance between the mortifying situation and themselves (p 41).


Another form of looping follows from the lack of role segregation (desegregation) allowing behaviour in one role/context to be brought into every other role/context (p 41).

Inmates undergo shifts within the self by being placed in dorms with one ‘mirror’ person and two ‘opposites’ (for example, two ‘under-controlled/over-active’ residents with two ‘over-controlled/under-active’ residents - with forced interpersonal contact and social relationship compelling a shift to the psycho-socially functional middle ground.


This applies to visits by friends and relatives attending big group. (Check re privacy of other visits including conjugal visits.)


Typically no monitoring. Some contact restrictions and limits with dysfunctional others



Community based pressure to ‘bring it up in the Big Group’; concern about consequences for the community as a whole, and personally experiencing the results of the process ‘working’, had residents exposing significant others (refer Bus Depot Gang, Chapter Seven).


As for Fraser House though the behaviour of residents and the outcomes of their behaviour are constantly a matter for group discussion towards functionality.


Within pervasive frames of ‘self help’ and ‘therapeutic community’, looping occurs where the full range of resident’s responses to the therapeutic community may be reflected back to them and be the subject of discussion and action. They cannot distance themselves from their acts and the consequences of their acts.


As for Fraser House, although within a context of enabling self help.



In mental asylums a permissive environment entraps inmates to ‘project’ or ‘act out’ their typical difficulties, which they are then confronted with during therapy sessions (p 42).




Inmates are regimented and tyrannized in that within civil society, the issue of ‘correctness’ rarely arises. Inmates have to constantly look over shoulders to see if criticism or other sanctions are coming. Minute matters, usually those of personally taste and choice in the outside world, are prescribed by authority

(p 42).


Each specification robs the individual of an opportunity to balance needs and objectives in a personally efficient way and opens up lines of action to sanctions (p 43).



The autonomy of the act is violated (p 43).




Economy of action is disrupted by being required to ask permission for supplies for minor activities; adults placed into suppliant submissive roles unnatural for adults; allowing ‘interception’ by staff, (being put off, teased, denied, questioned or ignored) (p 45).


Regimentation by being required to perform regulated activity in unison with others (p 46).




Use of an echelon form of authority in that any member of staff has certain rights to discipline or impose sanctions on any member of the inmate class (p 46).

As for Fraser House, though within a context of enabling self help. Permissiveness continues till the person is so enamoured and imbedded in the community they do not want to leave - then things may get humanely and ecologically tight and tough.


‘Enabling wellbeing of self and others’ is the standard for both residents and staff in relating with and intervening in the life of others. Some minute matters are pre-scribed by decision of resident committees. Also refer Nanotherapy in Chapter Five..





Specification is decided by residents, providing an opportunity to balance needs and objectives in both a personal and community sensible way and opens up lines of action to enhancement by all.


The autonomy of the act is supported at the individual and community levels with scope to explore fit in both sectors.


Economy of action is facilitated by residents being in charge of supplies for minor activities. This places adults into active responsible roles natural for adults and allows ‘enabling support’ by staff.




Some regimentation by being required to perform regulated activity in unison with others within a context where residents have established most of the ground rules.


Use of an echelon form of communal empowerment in that any resident or member of staff may provide enabling support to another resident or member of staff.


Echelon authority and strict enforcement of regulations may result, especially in new arrivals, in living with chronic anxiety about consequences of breaking rules (p 46).






Loss of self determination through having no capacity to decide certain bodily comforts such as soft bed and quietness at night

(p 47).



Even the capacity for self determination by the mode of response given back to authority may be denied or discounted by staff ignoring the response and reframing the response as a symptom of pathology (p 47).


Curtailment of self may be almost total (p 49).




It is largely the privilege system that provides the framework for personal reorganization

(p 51).


Firstly, proscriptive and prescriptive house rules layout required conduct (p 51).


Secondly, there are a small number of clearly defined rewards or privileges held out in exchange for obedience. The inmates’ world is built around these minor privileges - e.g., a coffee and a smoke. These are akin merely to the absence of deprivations one normally expects not to sustain (p 51).


Release is elaborated into the privilege system (p 53).

Echelon empowerment and strict enforcement of healing ways may result, especially among new arrivals, in living with ecological levels of anxiety, e.g. overactive/under-controlled may usefully have more anxiety, and underactive/ over-controlled may usefully have less anxiety.


As for some aspects of Fraser House such as the ‘soft bed’. However, residents have full control of regulations and involvement in the therapeutic change process ensuring things like a quiet night’s sleep.


The capacity for self-determination. Ecological responses given back to authority would be supported by staff at every opportunity. Residents would be encouraged to explore the consequences of non-ecological responses to other residents and staff.


Virtually everything fosters enriching the self towards self determining action and sociable relating with other selves in community


Every aspect of the caring therapeutic community provides the framework for personal reorganization.



In Fraser House and the bulk of proscriptive and prescriptive rules are decided by the residents.


Residents evolve their own lore and rules. They have free access to their own canteen.







Privileges a right for all. Non-ecological behaviour may see a withdrawal of some privileges. Release not linked to privileges; rather based on ecological functioning and capacity to fit into outside community, though required to leave after six moths stay. This was reduced to three months to foster change.


Thirdly, there are the punishments including withdrawal of privileges and as these assume great significance; withdrawal of small privileges also has a terrible significance

(p 51-2).


Rewards and punishment received by inmates are only received by children and animals in outside world (p 53).



Rewards and punishment woven into the residential work system with certain places, roles, and perks associated with reward

(p 53).


There is among inmates an informal system of what Goffman calls ‘secondary adjustments’ - practices that don’t directly challenge staff, but allow inmates to obtain forbidden satisfactions (‘the angles, deals, ‘knowing the ropes’)

(p 56).


An informal inmate system ensures that no inmate informs on others’ ‘secondary adjustments’; violators defined as ‘finks’ ‘squealers’, and ‘rats’ (p 56).


Inmate support groups developing in opposition to the system (p 56-57).






Typically, inmates find out that fellow inmates have all the properties of ordinary, occasionally decent human beings worthy of sympathy and support. Past offences cease to be an effective means of judging personal qualities  (p 57-59).


In therapeutic institutions, the inmates become less able to protect their ego by direct hostility towards the institution (p 59).

The rules for sanctions were evolved and administered by the patients and outpatients.





Rewards and punishments were not imposed top down. Sanctions were context and age relevant.



Consequences flowed from context and everyday life milieu.





The everyday life milieu worked its constituting potency. Anyone seeking ‘advantage over’ and ‘egocentrically working the system’ would be confronted with this by patients, outpatients and staff.




The oft-invoked slogan and practice was, ‘bring it up in the group’.





Support groups fostered and linked to the Fraser House community. There were functional and dysfunctional factions and cliques forming and disbanding regularly. Dysfunctional ones were cleavered.


Developing inmate support groups as an integral part of the system.







As for Fraser House, except that the system enhances ego, identity and mindbody integrity.




Firstly, by using regression (situational withdrawal) as a defensc.


Secondly, flagrant non-cooperation


Thirdly, colonization, fitting in and ‘doing it easy’.

Fourthly, conversion - becoming the perfect inmate.


Fifthly, playing it cool by a combination of the above. (p 61-64)


Typically, ‘stripping’ processes nor reorganizing processes seem to have lasting effect, partly because of secondary adjustments, counter mores and playing it cool (p 64).


The presence of release anxiety due to disculturation and stigmatization (p 69-71).






Inmate’s families have little understanding of the institution and can cause major embarrassment to inmates (p 123-135).



Some, because of prior experience of traditional hospitals, may set out to make use of secondary adjustments though such behaviour would be challenged and immediately brought up in a group. Being involved in Fraser House minimizes the necessity to resort to these ‘secondary adjustments’.







Reorganizing and re-constituting processes had lasting effect. All involved are vigilant in stopping processes that may strip.



Processes foster residents expanding and enriching their culture (as ‘way of life’). Close involvement of family and friends being in therapy themselves minimizes resident stigma as does domiciliary care visits by those who are about to be released.


Resident’s families have intimate understanding of the institution and are actively involved in resident healing (and typically, self healing).







Creating Cultural Locality


Pervasive attention to place in enabling patients and outpatients extend their family-friendship networks functionally


Full family residential therapeutic community


The therapeutic community as therapist – though this would tend to happen naturally


Clients as self-therapists, co-therapists and community therapists


The Resocialising Program - Self Governance and law making through an extensive patient run committee structure providing residents daily scope to learn firstly, about how administrations in communities and societies work, and more importantly, how they malfunction, and secondly, how to live with malfunctioning administrations without resorting to pathological accommodations (refer Presthus (Presthus 1978))


Staff devolved their administrative roles to resident committees, thus freeing up staff time for engaging in the healing role – administrative therapy


No token economy, rather an actual economy. Example one: via residents running the canteen - all aspects of canteen was run by patients as work therapy including book-keeping, preparation of accounts, stock-taking and reordering. Example two: The residents making the bowling green after winning the tender to do the job.


The Tikopia model - intentional use of structures and processes engendering diverse cleavered unities


Matched sleeping with counterbalancing of over-active/under-controlled and under-active/over-controlled - an example of diverse unities


Socio-therapy based on the assumption that the primary locus of psychosocial dis-order was in the client-family-friends nexus rather than just within the client.


Big Group therapy (180 plus) with family & friends required to be in attendance as a condition of the client being in the unit - with all of the associate potential for family and friends to learn coping and healing skills in relating with the client – learning to live well together


Small group attendance based on sociological categories (location, age, marital status, etc.)


Residents running a suicide crisis intervention resource.


Residents running the domiciliary service for ex-patients and outpatients.


Residents taking the main responsibility in getting friends and relatives agreeing to come to groups - usually by making unannounced calls


Residents involved in evolving each others’ social networks (through the Outpatients and Friends Committee and the Location-based Small Groups)


Virtually everything that happened was shared by all staff (including cleaners) and clients. This oral (as well as written record keeping) and information exchange allowed virtually all staff time to be in interaction with clients.


Use of simple slogans (e.g. ‘bring it up in the group’)


Use of tight group processes to contain and prevent assaultiveness so there was no need to use isolation as practiced in the American treatment groups


Residents and or staff being constantly with (specialing) suicidal clients (with clients never isolated)


Defining local areas as ‘catchment areas’ and providing crisis support, especially suicide crisis support, to these areas so that the clients saw themselves as being part of a therapeutic community - which was in turn an integral community preventative resource


A collection of psychosocial therapies including:


o   collective (big group) therapy

o   ecology therapy

o   governance (administrative) therapy

o   family and friends network therapy (with impetus from Big group and domiciliary care, as evidenced by the growth of the Grow self help group by ex Fraser House residents

o   family and friends socio-therapy

o   family (residential) therapeutic community

o   milieu therapy

o   nanotherapy – work at the micro-level

o   parent & child play therapy

o   research as therapy

o   residential co-therapy

o   work therapy








A founding director of the NSW Foundation for the Research and Treatment of Alcoholism and Drug Dependency.


A founding director of the national body of the above organization.


The Government Coordinator on the Board of Directors of the Foundation for Research and Treatment of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence.


A member of the Council for an International Conference on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence.


An advisor on an Australian National University Research Program on the Study of Alcoholism.


Chairman of the Departmental Conference of Clinicians Panel (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 67)


Member of the NSW State Clinicians Conference (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 96)


A member of the Committee of Classification of Psychiatric Patterns of the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.


An advisor to the Research Committee of the New South Wales College of General Practitioners.


A member of the Executive Council of the Foundation for Aboriginal Affairs and the Chairman of their Health Advisory Panel   (Yeomans, N., 1969, Vol.12, page 92)


A patron of Recovery (now Grow) and the organizer of the first group in Sydney Hospital.


The Patron and Counsellor of Recovery Groups


A member of the Advisory Committee of the Institute of Criminology


A member of the Advisory Editorial Committee of the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology.




Having extensive court experience as an Expert Witness and involved in prison rehabilitation and prison reform for some years. He assisted development of rehabilitation and research programs by parole and probation officers. Some of these were involved in the Psychiatric Research Study Group (Yeomans, N., 1969, Vol.12, page 73).


The president of the Total Care Foundation which was the entity used to evolve the Watson’s Bay Festival (discussed later in this Chapter).


A Founding member of the Sydney Arts Foundation


Member of the Ministerial Committee involved in the repeal of the Inebriates Act (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 71)


Member of the Health Education Advisory Sub-Committee on Alcoholism (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 72.)


Organizer of a Fellowship on Alcoholism (Yeomans 1965, Vol. 12, p. 72.)


In 1980 Neville became a member of the Editorial Board of the academic Journal, The Journal of Therapeutic Communities.


An examiner for the Fellowship Examinations of the Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatry – confirmed by Dr. William McLeod, psychiatrist and former Director of Psychiatry at Royal Park Psychiatric Hospital in Melbourne for over twenty years.


A founding member of the Sydney Opera House Society (mentioned by E. Deuk-Cohen)


A member of the Board of Directors of :


o   The Drug Addiction Foundation

o   The Drug Referral Centre

o   Aged, Sick and Infirm Appeal






o   Australian Don Henderson sung folk with poetic interludes

o   Australian Folk singer - Don Gillespio

o   A collection of expensive sculpture, pottery and art was on display - on loan from Art Galleries

o   Czech Trich Trotch Polka

o   Filipino Band

o   Greek display by Girls of the Lyceum Club

o   Hungarian Czards

o   Indian dance by Rama Krishna

o   Indonesian singers

o   Israeli Dancer - Vera Goldmen

o   Japanese dancers

o   Karate display

o   Malaysian Scarf dance

o   Mike Harris - guitarist

o   Oriental dancers

o   Polish dance music and songs

o   Rev Swami Sarcorali and Roma Blair and the Yoga Fellowship gave a Yoga demonstration

o   Sally Hart - also folksy

o   Spanish Classical guitarist Antonio Lazardo

o   Spanish Flamenco Dancers

o   Spanish Flamenco Guitarist played by Ivan Withers

o   Welsh folk singers


In the evening was a psychedelic light display and pop band.






o   A film show

o   Barbeques

o   Cultural displays

o   Display by historical fire engine Association of Australia

o   Displays of national dress

o   Displays of yoga

o   Dog obedience exhibition

o   Dress and fashion parades,

o   Folk dancing

o   Folk singing

o   Handcrafts

o   Horse drawn cart pageant

o   Jazz groups

o   Jogging

o   Kite flying

o   Light shows

o   Lions club display and activities

o   Marching girls

o   Marquee and geodesic dome

o   Music performances

o   National dancing

o   National feasts

o   National songs

o   Painting groups

o   Physical fitness activities

o   Poetry reading

o   Pop groups

o   Puppet ‘Shoes’

o   Qantas and TAA displays

o   Ropes area and ladders

o   School gymnastics teams

o   Six Vintage cars

o   Small tractors with trailers for shifting people

o   Static displays






Adaptive Challenge

Authentic Empowering


Bifurcation Point

Business Ecology

Business Ecosystems

Business Ergotrophic and Trophotropic Systems

Business Surviving and Thriving

Butterfly Effect

Causation of Business Sickness


Cleavered Unity









Cybernetics - First and Second Order

Danger Alert


Dichter and Denken

Dissipative Structures


Ebb and Flow




Emergence and Sustaining Innovation

Emergence of Resonant Strange Attractors in Business

Emergent Community

Emergent properties






Frame - Metaframing

Free Energy

Functional Matrix

Future Pacing


Fuzzy Logic

Geosocial Mindbody Processes - Keyline and Cultural Keyline





Hypothetical Realplay

Illness-Wellness continuum

Incapability Capability


INMA - Inter-system Normative Model Area

Innovation and Growth

Internal Experience



Kennen and Wissen






Natural System Design

Natural Systems - Organizational and Operational Principles of Healthy Business-People Systems


Network Care

Non-Linear Process

Non-linearity and Linearity


Normative Action Research

Objectivity and Subjectivity

On Being Tentative

Phase Portrait



Process and Outcome approaches







Second Order Cybernetics

Self-embedded Phenomena



Self Organizing Systems

Sickness and Disease Model

Social Re-constituting of Business Realities


Structural Coupling and Eco-history


Structure and Pattern

Structuring Excellence


Quick Response Networks




APPENDIX 18.  Globalocal Realplay - Healing Nightmares


Globalocal Realplay - Healing Nightmares



In the late Eighties when I was consulting in organizational change I was approached by a Federal Government Department about creating paradigm shift and cultural and climate change in their senior executive members. Neville and I wrote on one page what he described as a ‘global-local realplay’ as a resource for senior executive change. Neville adapted the learning process ‘role-play’ (Shaw and Corsini 1980) to be ‘realplay’ consistent with Cultural Healing Action. Consistent with Keyline and Cultural Keyline this realplay set up hypothetical realities for people to share. Bandler and Grinder call this, ‘future pacing’ (Bandler 1975; Grinder, De Lozier et al. 1977; Grinder, Bandler et al. 1981; Bandler, Grinder et al. 1982).


Consistent with Neville’s, 1974 ‘On Global Reform’ paper (Yeomans 1974) the hypothetical realplay is set in an indefinite future time where there has been a shift in World Order to Regional Governance with local governance of local matters. In this future reality Australia is part of the SE Asia Oceania Australasia Region. All members of the Federal Senior Executive Service are becoming redundant in two years. However there are seven plum areas of work at the Regional Governance Level. Regional recovery is one. Currently the key contenders for that plum are consortiums from SE Asia because they are more sensitive to Islamic issues. If Australia wins the job, the Regional Recovery Center would be placed in Darwin. Another plum job is creating a power grid stretching from Tasmania through SE Asia to China. If Australia gets that plum it would be based in Melbourne or Adelaide. The idea was that all in the Senior Executive Service could be given the challenge to increase their competencies in thinking like a living system, working with emergent properties and ways of thinking, in self organizing and mutual organizing cooperation by dividing up into seven groups who then set about preparing a joint proposal that would be worthy of winning the contract. Participants would be given actual resources to meet in small and large groups and network by phone and the Internet. Working with a large number of other peers in putting together what would be a very substantial proposal would create potential to co-reconstitute themselves as a very new kind of workforce. The realplay task is to work with one’s peers in preparing a comprehensive plan outlining the structure and processes the consortium would use in constituting say, the Regional Trade Centre. The realplay is to extend to one’s family in talking through as hypothetical’s all of the issues involved say in relocating to Darwin – new friends, new schools for children and the like – as well as exploring possibilities for evolving family-friend support networks among one’s consortium peers and their families.

When the Department decided to use American consultants they were not shown the Hypothetical Realplay and it has never been used. However, it does give the feel for Neville’s application of Cultural Keyline principles and his thinking about possible futures and Global and Regional governance.







SETTING:                 22nd Century Nows in Australia

PERSONNEL:         Clerical, service, others

POSITION:                So far you are surviving the Disasters





A universal Rule of Law is guided by developing globicultural canons enabling renewal, frugality, humanity, spirituality, ecology, justice, equity, beauty, peaceability and diversity.


The World Assembly is mobilizing localized, functional and globilateral governance and regeneration of interdependencies.


Regions, nations states, cities, localities and individuals are cooperating, negotiating and pooling resources.


Technical rehabilitation is being internationalized; interregional cooperation and continental repair fostered.





Columbus Place – business, governments, and community groups throughout the world have  accepted that the Space Migration Site in Cape York Peninsula is the only way to go.


Co-ordination of regional recovery for Asia-Pacifica is to be decided between Kuala Lumpur and Darwin. The latter’s alleged disadvantages are that we have neither proper respect for Islam; nor a cooperative, open, flexible Territorian Government.


Townsville is our nomination for the Minority Peoples Activities Agency.


Polycentric organizing action teams are needed for:


Air, waters, forest, land (including coastal zones, river systems, transboundary areas), peace-keeping, resource recycling and taxation, international and intergroup dispute resolution, city-regional relations, and conversion planning. Brisbane and Sydney are competing for one of these challenges.


Technical rehabilitation: Melbourne and Adelaide as leading centres are exploring the feasibility of electricity sharing from China to Hobart.


Austro-India and East African cooperation is being pursued at all levels in Perth, as is the Kimberley Colossus.


Sydney and New Zealand are linking with Latin America.


Melbourne is proposing a World Institute for harmonizing Appropriate Dispute Resolution and Legalities.


TASK: To build support with each other towards reviving and restoring your family and community.


© 1992.Dr. Neville Yeomans & Les Spencer, Yungaburra, Qld;







AKAME                                   Youth and adolescent support

                                                 Cultural healing action

                                                 Alternatives to criminal and psychiatric incarceration

Stopping youth and adolescent civil and criminal law breaking Values


CADRES                               Community theatre

Community wellbeing

Social justice

Therapeutic mediating

Alternative dispute resolving


CHUMS                                 Unmarried mothers:





Experience sharing

Work opportunities




CODA                                    Disability action and the arts


CONNEXION                        Intercultural healing action

Intercultural humane legal processes

Intercultural social networks

Linking to global governance

Intercultural healing action

Truth, reconciling and accepting


DANZACTS                          Alternatives to prisons

Cultural healing action

Combatant’s return to civilian life

Healing dance, drama & the arts

Healing festivals and camp-outs


EMATRIX                              Experiential learning – self-organizing systems

                                    Reconstituting organizations to being living systems 

                                                CBO/NGO/Business/Gov organizational innovation


ENTREATIES                       Intercultural enabling

                                    Exploring intercultural humane values

                                    Peacehealing protocols

EXTEGRITY                          Supporting grassroots community following societal collapse

                                                Funding support for civil society re-constituting

Fostering caring partnerships between prior conflicted peoples

Supporting survivors of torture and trauma (natural/man-made)

Support for reconstituting local grassroots community


FUNPO                                  Youth action

Youth employment and skilling

Youth healing festivals

Youth sport, dance, art and culture


INMA                                      Caring


Fostering emergent properties


Seeding possibilities



Inter-cultural Normative Model Areas


KEYLINE                               Conservation

Eco-villages & eco-habitat

Edible landscaping

Oasifying desserts and arid areas



Water harvesting


MINGLES                              Celebrating and re-creating

Community health

Social networks


Enriching families


NELPS                                   Accommodation

Community education

Employment and skilling

Income security

Personal wellbeing



                                    Quick response healing teams

                                    Supporting torture and trauma survivors

Alternatives to criminal and psychiatric incarcerating

Therapeutic community

Evolving enablers

Enabling networking




Each of the names in the above list has significance. Neville had checked on the derivations of the words and terms he had in the Laceweb Functional Matrix names:



AKAME                      ‘Aka’ is Torres Strait Islander for Grandmother; hence the

                                    Connotation is ‘me and my (wise) grandmother’


CADRES                   From Latin ‘quadrum’, a square; meaning ‘a function’ or’ scheme’;the ADR connotes ‘Alternative Dispute Resolution’


CHUMS                     Colloquial for good friends

                                    Care and Help for Unmarried Mothers


CODA                         From Latin ‘cauda’ meaning ‘tail’; an adjunct to the close of a composition; CoDA Latin ‘co’ from ‘cum’, meaning ‘with’, and DA connoting Disablility Action


CONNEXION             From Latin ‘connectere’ – to join, link, unite, associate, closely relate, coherent, having the power of connecting; link to Old English ‘Connexity’ meaning simultaneously being inter-dependent, inter-related, inter-woven, and inter-connected


DANZACTS               Connoting ‘dance acts’; combatant’s return to civilian life is respectfully connoted by the embedded ‘ANZAC’. (In working with a member of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) and other Bougainville and West Papuan traumatized refugees in 2001, dance was rated the most useful in the healing ways we explored.) Therapeutic community.


EMATRIX                  Enabling and evolving Function Matrices


ENTREATIES           From Old French ‘entraiter’ – to ask earnestly; the word ‘treaties’ is embedded


EXTEGRITY              Connoting ‘extensive integrity’. It is possible that Neville knew of the term ‘tensegrity’ connoting ‘integrity through tension’ and used this to derive ‘Extegrity’.


FUNPO                      At Yungaburra where Funpo started it stood for the ‘Fun Post Office’; all the children of the little town were exchanging letters with each other gratis by sending them to Funpo. It also stands for Friends of UNPO, the Unrepresented Nations and People Organization in The Hague.


INMA                          ‘Inma’ is a special word for the Central Australian Aborigines. Neville had obtained their permission to use it. It has many meanings including ‘being together’. In Ma connotes ‘in ma’ – ‘in the mother’ and has similar connotation to the word ‘matrix’. The Torres Strait Island word ‘Ini’ also means, ‘being together’; INMA also stood for International/Intercultural Normative Model Areas (Yeomans 1974).


KEYLINE                   From Nevilles father’s ‘Keyline’



MINGLES                  Mingle: to mix together, to blend with, to associate


NELPS                       A play on ‘help’; NLP or Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or Neville’s terms for NLP, namely, ‘Natural Learning Processes’, and ‘Natural Living Processes’


UN-INMA                   Unique (Indigenous) Networks - International/Intercultural/Interpersonal Normative Model Areas





The following paper was prepared for the Rural Health Support Education and Training (RHSET) Section of the Australian Federal Health Department in 1993. That Department was offering funding to INMA Nelps initiatives. This paper was discussed with the Head of RHSET, his Deputy, and his head of Program Evaluation. While RHSET people were prepared to ‘bend’ their rules’, no money was accepted by INMA Nelps. The issues and problematics relating to Government sectorising, and using top down service-delivery criteria for decision making in granting funding and program evaluation relating to loco-lateral self-help and mutual help well-being action that are canvassed in the paper were acknowledged by the three RHSET people. The paper has forwarded on to Global Governance organizations, and various Citizen Based Organisations (CBO’s) in the Region.





Dr. Neville Yeomans, Les Spencer, and Terry Widders


A discussion paper prepared by the Laceweb.



Copyright: The Laceweb. First distributed 1993, and reprinted 1998 & November 2000


From small beginnings in the 1940's community based grassroots wellbeing action is taking place across Northern Australia and spreading throughout the SE Asia Oceania Australasia Region. A ground-swell of people is cooperating in taking their own responsibility to resolve a massive range of cultural wellbeing issues. In the past these issues have fallen to governments to resolve because no other entity had the capacity to have an impact. 


If grassroots community wellbeing nurturing action continues it's exponential growth, the potential to lower the present cost involved in service delivery is immense. The role of governments, for large sections of the wellbeing agenda, has scope to change from 'deliverer of services' to that of 'facilitator of local cultural nurturing action' - self-help. 


This grassroots nurturing cultural action for wellbeing is called by some 'The Laceweb'. The Laceweb could be a micro-model for an alternative wellbeing delivery process running parallel to service delivery, not only for Australia, but also for the rest of the world. 


The grassroots wellbeing action being described differs in many respects from traditional non-government organizations (NGO) and community-based organizations (CBO), both voluntary and non-voluntary. 


In this paper the term 'grassroots' is used in the sense of 'the common folk'. Often the people involved have never engaged in socio-cultural action before - have never been on a committee, exercised any problem solving effectiveness or dreamt that they could have an effect.


 'Wellbeing' is used in the widest possible sense and covers the nurturing healing aspects of human living. This includes physical, socio-emotional, mental, spiritual, relational, family, communal, cultural, intercultural, economic, habitat and environmental. 'Nurturing cultural action' implies 'healing' in its widest sense. 


Self-sufficiency was the hallmark of Australia's early non-aboriginal pioneering and rural life. At the very first settlement, the Rum Corps assisted in the stripping of the cultural context of all inhabitants - Aboriginal, Irish, Anglo, and the like. These contexts it replaced with an invasive military culture. Issues impacting on wellbeing (health, housing, community services, etc) in the colonies became so massive that governments have become increasingly a main vehicle for delivering wellbeing related services. 


This has generated a system of top-down action delivered by thousands of experts in academic, government and non-government bodies who, together with their administrative backup, sort out aspects of our lives for us. Behind these are even more thousands of bureaucrats who keep track of what all these experts are doing for us. 


Most wellbeing issues revolve around what we do or do not do as we go about our lives; that is, our culture. A very small proportion of loss of wellbeing relates to the action of germs, viruses, and chance occurrence.


Some wellbeing loss is attributable to business decision-makers (pollution, environmental degradation, and the like). 


A very large proportion is self-imposed or imposed on others - substance abuse, domestic violence, becoming insane, committing crime, poor eating habits and life styles, polluting, causing soil erosion and so on. It is trivially true that if people stopped behaviours like the ones mentioned, most wellbeing issues, currently costing billions, would be solved without costing a cent. But it's not that simple. 


Across Northern Australia influences are being generated that are placing the impetus for nurturing cultural action for wellbeing back at the place it breaks down - with local people as they go about their lives. It is a lateral and bottom-up action. Small groups engage in action and keep using practices that work for them. Others become involved and initiatives, starting 'at the bottom', work their way 'out' and 'up' to include more of the wider community. 


Different communities can vary markedly as to what constitutes their wellbeing culture. Bottom-up grassroots cultural wellbeing action is about the local community exploring and making consensual decisions about what they need and want for their own wellbeing; taking the necessary steps themselves to attain their wellbeing and deciding themselves when they have not got it. Only they know this. Increasingly the people involved are saying "We do not want outsiders trying to provide our wellbeing or deciding our wellbeing for us". 


Because 'Grassroots community cultural nurturing wellbeing action' is a long expression, the term 'Action' will be used from here on. The Laceweb Action taking place involves people recognizing contexts of possibility and taking the opportunity to do something for themselves and others. In most cases it is the women who are taking the initiative. It involves acts celebrating diversity. It revolves around cultural healing and intercultural reconciliation. 


Action expands links among individuals and families and turns strangers into friends. It builds 'communing' communities. It permeates through everyday life. It 'villages' the city. These features have multiple benefits including the removal of anomie, loneliness, powerlessness, identity issues etc. 


Initiatives are involving people in acting together to take back ability over their own lives. Experts are used as resource people and not as power brokers and decision-makers. Nurturing culture involves ways of joint action that continually spreads and enriches the wellbeing competence base throughout the local community. People are engaged in passing on diverse wellbeing micro-experiences, for example, in providing community based family and individual support. 


Wellbeing-competence is refined and passed on in natural settings as well as during specific structured contexts; for example, the intercultural family center previously explored in Rapid Creek - Darwin, far north Queensland intercultural diversionary services, South Sea Islander initiatives and Vietnamese Helping Hand health and training activities. Increasingly people are being intuitively appropriate in their responses to each other. There are acts that are perfect for the moment, which also contain the seed of realistic generalisable policy. 


This Action is taking place without an over-reliance on funding. At times, many people come together for specific events, celebrations and healing actions. (An example was the UN funded Small Island, Coastal, and Estuarine People Gathering Celebration ( ) in Far North Queensland in 1994. As well, throughout every day, grassroots people are involved in myriads of significant trivial wellbeing acts. People act together to support each other at appropriate times. Most actions do not rely on money. 


Action combines the structured and the general, the formal and the informal. It creatively and positively uses community grapevines. It has a self-sustaining energy. Specific and general programs evolve out of action. In all of this, Laceweb Action is generative. It is a dynamic expanding process that continually subjects Action to review. Evaluation processes proceed in tandem with Action.


Programs and actions that 'work' are passed on to others, consensually validated and adopted as policy at the local level.


Action is simultaneously addressing everything undermining wellbeing. It is both pervasively holistic and detailed within its holism. Action is focused on all the inter-related issues involved - simultaneously working on impediments to, for example, economic, socio-emotional and environmental wellbeing. Because of the multifaceted nature of nurturing Action, it tends to have simultaneous multiple positive consequences.  Action has three concurrent themes. The major theme is generating and nurturing wellbeing. This is closely followed by preventing impediments to wellbeing and curing those affected by impediments. Action is focused on increasing wellbeing, sustaining prevention, and decreasing the need to cure. 


Another feature is that it starts with action based on consensually valid local knowledge. It commences with self-starters who have an 'outcome' focus (compared to an 'input' focus). These people start by doing things and demonstrating to others that things can be done. They get others involved who follow and extend their example. This is fundamentally different to what happens in traditional top-down expert driven processes. Experts (often with 'input' focus) tend to hold strings of planning meetings and exploratory conferences, conduct research and feasibility studies and then hold more conferences to discuss the research and explore what might be done. 


With every respect, it is typical that massive time and expense is incurred in all of these expert-driven processes before anyone ever does anything to solve the problem. Local grassroots nurturing action people are very familiar with local issues and immediately get on with the job in hand. Action people are not dependent on constantly seeking anyone's permission or approval, especially the approval of experts. 


Action does draw on the resources of NGO's and CBO's and works in association with them without the Action itself reverting to top-down processes. Action is supported by the detailed local knowledge and the resources available within local government. 


Bottom-up process can meet, complement, and facilitate the top-down approach. For example, by providing consensual small project proof about what works, the bottom-up approach can support top-down processes by allowing opportunities for top-down studies to be restricted to what does work, rather than studying and sifting through lots of things that will not work. 


We live at a time when national and international attention is being focused on seemingly unsolvable intercultural reconciliation conflicts both within Australia and around the world, especially those involving indigenous people and small minorities. 


At the same time in Darwin and across Northern Australia there are small living breathing microprojects of grassroots nurturing cultural action for wellbeing producing intercultural reconciliation within communities. Peoples from many cultural backgrounds - Aboriginals, Torres Strait Islanders, Asians, Pacific Islanders, Anglo-Europeans etc - are cooperating together to provide their own wellbeing. 


The Australian Federal Government's aim has been to have Darwin and the surrounding region as Australia's northern link with East Asia. The world's focus will be on multicultural Australia during the lead up to the Year 2000 Olympics in Sydney. In the family of the Laceweb, governments may have a micromodel that can have national and global applicability. 


There seems to be consensus between governments of all persuasions about the value of reducing the size of government expenditure and of getting better value for the public dollar. The Laceweb's nurturing cultural Action for wellbeing is a vehicle that can contribute to both of these aims. National and local governments are well placed to encourage grassroots Action. It is in the interest of governments to do so. 


How can government foster this community based nurturing cultural Action? 


Three issues will be introduced. 


Firstly, government policy and program processes are presently geared for traditional top-down expert-driven undertakings. Currently, committees evaluating funding submissions presuppose that traditional top-down expert driven approaches will be used. 


Grassroots community wellbeing action also has both policy and program processes. However these are generated by lateral and bottom-up action. Specific and general programs evolve out of this action. Programs and actions that 'work' are consensually validated and adopted as policy at the local level. The fundamental aspect of Action is that local people have the first and last say about everything to do with their own wellbeing. 


A second issue is that governments and their bureaucracies have tended to fragment the world into narrow separate bits - economics, health, housing, agriculture, forestry, the environment etc. Each government program area tends to jealously guard onerous apparent prerogatives as a 'dispenser of public funds'. Few, if any, government inter-sector funding arrangements exist. In contrast, grassroots wellbeing action is holistic in a manner that is at the same time both pervasive and detailed. 


A third issues is that while people may aspire to lessen public expenditure and obtain better value for the public dollar, there is a strong pressure towards putting self-preservation first if achieving the above goals appears personally detrimental. 


Traditional government and non-government wellbeing agencies may see grassroots initiatives as a threat to their own funding. If grassroots wellbeing action really starts to be effective on a larger scale, this may raise a fear of presupposed downsizing within sections of the bureaucracy and a similar fear within traditional wellbeing services. 


Because of these perceived threats, the foregoing entities may mistakenly seek to undermine grassroot wellbeing initiatives. They may fail to see scope for multiple lateral integration between lateral/bottom-up and top down processes, or appreciate the scope for shifting from vertical integration to lateral integration. The obvious claim from within the existing paradigm is that grassroot wellbeing action is 'unprofessional' - that it is not under the direction and control of professed experts. Also, that it is not organized 'properly' - in other words, it is not 'top-down'. 


The Laceweb 


The Laceweb has experience dating from the 1940's in working with healing action. The Laceweb is a source of influence, confluence, understanding and enabling in linking up peoples, contexts, issues, and actions in sustained lateral/bottom-up nurturing culture for action for wellbeing - refer An Example of Enabling Indigenous Wellbeing. ( ).


Other Laceweb roles are seeking out people who are generating nurturing cultural Actions that work, letting other grassroot people know about them and sharing healing ways that work. 


The Laceweb is well placed to take on a number of roles in exploring the possibility of government facilitation of grassroot community wellbeing action. 


Firstly, The Laceweb can continue to expand in its current Action role. 


Secondly, The Laceweb can work along side government to develop processes for resolving the many matters arising from the three issues previously mentioned. 


Thirdly, The Laceweb could provide an interface and support role between government and grassroots nurturing action. This could relate to the evolving of action agreements and other funding arrangements for specific local action initiatives.  The Laceweb welcomes sharing discussions about the ideas and initiatives outlined above. 


















Registered in NSW October 1971








NEXUS GROUPS is a group of people with a shared concern for people experiencing an emotional personal, family or human relations crisis. These are the people who are likely to become the consumers of welfare and mental health services. Some of us are or have been patients; some of us have worked with such persons; some of us have been both. We are working outside of hospitals and institutions; we intend to remain outside and to help others to stay out. We reject the idea that clients and patients are different kinds of human beings to those who try to help them. We recognize only that a human being in a state of personal and social crisis may need the help of his or her fellow humans.


We reject the idea that ‘being well’ or ‘working’ is the same as ‘being normal’ or behaving as you are expected to behave (being good). We recognize only that when a person’s behaviour is intolerable to other people, it is usually because their situation is intolerable to them. So we must not simply ask them to change their behavior; we must help them to change the situation.  We reject the idea that an emotional crisis is simply a ‘disease’ to be ‘treated’ with medicines, handouts or punishments in isolation from the social situation that brought it about. We recognize that ‘treatment’ can only relieve distressing symptoms and that the consumers should have the right to choose this treatment if s/he wants to.


People of NEXUS GROUPS see the idea of NEXUS GROUPS as a mutual help organization. We have formed ourselves into a collective, to come to know ourselves and one another and to increase our understanding of human relationships and emotional crisis.    


There are some professional workers and ex-professionals helping NEXUS GROUPS who have valuable experience and knowledge to bring to use. 


However, they work according to the NEXUS GROUPS philosophy and reject the one-sided patient/doctor type of relationship.


People `freak' (i.e. behave incomprehensibly and so on). Some freak-outs have very positive aspects - increased perception, sensitivity and insight, but there are often negative sides - fear, confusion, isolation and alienation. At such times people need the support of others. NEXUS GROUPS is where such support could be found. Anyone who agrees with our aims is welcome to join us in putting them into practice.


NEXUS GROUPS is a community-based organization aiming to stimulate community concern and action about personal and human relations problems.




Drawing on our basic philosophy of mutual help with problems we of NEXUS GROUPS have started to work in the following areas:


Providing a phone service where we can be called for advice, information or a sympathetic ear.


Having an office open 6 days a week where people can drop in and talk etc.


Organizing people willing to visit any in crisis at any time.


Building up a network of people in the community who can accommodate and lend support to people in crisis for short periods


Researching and informing people about human relations problems human rights and humanitarian law.


Contacting sympathetic individuals and organizations who can be of use to people who come to NEXUS GROUPS


Planning to obtain, operate and maintain a mini-bus for mobile groups, emergency groups and home visits.


Providing a sympathetic magazine for information and education.


Raising the necessary funds to finance the above work, the organization was registered as a charity in October 1971.








The name of the organization shall be NEXUS GROUPS.




Annual financial membership shall be instituted and a register of financial members kept.


Only financial members may vote.


Only financial members may become committee members.


Under exceptional circumstances, exemption from subscriptions may be decided by a vote at the meeting the member is accepted.


Membership will be conferred by a vote at a committee meeting.


Application for membership will be in writing to Executive Committee.


Membership subscriptions will be due 1st. September each year.


Members joining after February will pay half annual dues.


All members may extend the help of NEXUS GROUPS to any person in need of help.


Members may remain completely anonymous or use first names only if they desire to do so.


No member will aid or abet any other member in any crime or act of anti social behaviour.


Any member arriving at meetings drunk or drugged may, on a group decision, be expelled from the meeting until sober.


All members must endeavour to be at meetings on time so as not to disrupt the group once it is in progress.


People without close relatives or friends may on group decision become members, but the group's aim is to involve families.


Any member who does anything considered detrimental to the group or its individual members may on group decision be banned entirely from the group, and can apply for re- admittance after no less than 3 months.


Visitors to group meetings may only attend three meetings before applying for membership.


Subscriptions for membership or NEXUS GROUPS newsletter will be set by the Committee as necessary, now at $5.00 annually.




The management of the Organization shall be vested in an Executive Committee consisting of the office-bearers and four (4) other members.


No member of the Executive Committee shall be appointed to any salaried office of the Organization or any office of the Organization paid by fees and no remuneration or other benefit in money or money's worth shall be given by the Organization to any member of the Executive Committee except repayment of out-of-pocket expenses, interest at a rate not exceeding interest at the rate for the time being charged by Bankers in Sydney for money lent the Organization and reasonable and proper rent for premises let to the Organization.




The office-bearers shall consist of a President, Secretary, Treasurer and such other officers as shall be decided by the members of the Organization at the Annual General Meeting. The office-bearers and the other members of Executive Committee shall be elected annually at the Annual General Meeting. Any casual vacancy occurring among the office-bearers may be filled by the Committee and the person so appointed to fill such vacancy shall hold office for the unexpired term of the member so replaced.


Professional people i.e. Doctors, Lawyers, Priests, Politicians, etc., will not be eligible for election to the Executive (Management) Committee, but may be referred to the Honorary Advisory Resources Committee. Office-bearers and Executive Committee members will be elected only from within the general NEXUS GROUPS membership. To be elected to the Executive Committee a person has to be a financial member of NEXUS GROUPS and must be nominated by the group which they have been attending.





The Executive Committee may meet together for the dispatch of business, adjourn and otherwise appoint and regulate its meetings as it thinks fit.


The President may at any time, and the Secretary on the requisition of any four members of the Committee summon a meeting of the Committee.


Questions arising at any meeting of the Committee shall be decided by a majority of votes of those present and a determination by a majority of the members of the Committee present shall for all purposes be a determination of the Committee. In case of an equality of votes the Chairman of the meeting shall have a second or casting vote.


The continuing members of the Committee may act not withstanding any vacancy in the Committee, but if and so long as their number is reduced below the number fixed by or pursuant to these rules as the necessary quorum, the continuing member or members may act for the purpose of increasing the number of members of the Committee from amongst the members, which they are hereby empowered to do, or of summoning a general meeting of the Organization, but for no other purpose.


The Executive Committee's function is to maintain lines of communication with all people and departments working in the field of social well-being and mental health so that NEXUS GROUPS groups may have first hand information on developments in this field and to manage the business administration and to set policy for the NEXUS GROUPS Organization.




The office of a member of the Executive Committee or of a trustee shall become vacant:


Upon his decease.



If he becomes bankrupt or makes any arrangement or composition with his creditors generally.


If he resigns his office by notice in writing to the Organization.


If he is absent for more than six months without leave of the Committee from meetings of the Committee held during that period.


If he ceases to be a member of the Organization.


Upon a resolution being passed by a two-thirds majority of members present at a properly constituted general meeting specially called for the purpose, to remove him from office.


If he holds any office of profit under the Organization.


If he is directly or indirectly interested in any contract or proposed contract with the Organization.




The financial year shall conclude on 30th. June.




The Annual General Meeting of members shall be held during the month of July in each year, when the Annual Report and audited financial statements shall be presented.




Any four members of the Executive Committee may at any time convene a Special General Meeting of the Organization. Special General Meetings shall also be convened by the Secretary upon the written request of not less than five per centum in number of the members of the Organization and shall be held within a period of one month from the date of the





At meetings of Members a quorum shall consist of five (5) members and at an Executive Committee Meeting shall consist of three (3) members. Should within half an hour of the time set down for a meeting to commence, a quorum be not present, then the meeting shall be adjourned to the same time and place seven days later or to a place and to a time within one month of the date of such meeting, to be determined thereat. If at such adjourned meeting a quorum be not present, then those members attending shall be deemed to be a quorum, provided the number of such members is not less than three.




Counselling group meetings will be of one-hour duration with one half hour for supper and general discussion; total one and a half hours.


A group chairman will be elected by the group at each meeting to chair the next meeting.




A group chairman's duty is to see that as many members as possible have a chance to discuss their problems, unless in his or her opinion there is an urgent or critical situation that the group wishes to deal with, also he or she must check any side conversation which may disrupt the group and make sure that a chairman is elected for the following week. A Group chairman may after warning a member order him or her from the group for that meeting only.


All personal problems discussed at group meetings will remain strictly confidential and must not be discussed outside group meetings. Any person inquiring of a member may be invited to attend a group meeting and state their reasons for inquiring.





Each local group shall elect their own group leader, administrative member or committee, whose function is to maintain lines of communication with the Executive Committee and to make sure a different group chairman is elected each week at his or her local group.




Group counselling meetings will be held weekly wherever possible. Executive Committee meetings will be convened at the discretion of the President or Secretary.


A notice may be given to any member either personally or by sending it to him at his address registered with the Organization or if he has no registered address to the place of abode of the member last known to the Executive Committee (Management Committee).


Where a notice is sent by post, service of the notice shall be deemed to be effected by properly addressing, prepaying and posting a letter or an envelope containing the notice and to have been effected, in the case of the notice of a meeting on the day after the date of its posting and in any other case the time at which the letter would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.




All monies received by the Organization shall be deposited intact at the earliest possible date to the credit of the Organization’s Bank Account. Receipts for monies received shall also be issued promptly.


All payments in excess of $5.00 made by the Organization shall be paid by cheque signed by any two of the President, Secretary and Treasurer.


All assets and income of the Organization shall be applied solely in furtherance of its objects. No portion shall be distributed either directly or indirectly to its members, except as good faith compensation for services rendered or expenses incurred on behalf of the Organization.




All accounts shall be presented to and passed for payment at an Executive Committee Meeting and full details of all such approvals shall be entered in the Minute Book.




The auditor or auditors shall be elected at the Annual General Meeting. They shall examine all accounts, vouchers, receipts, books, etc., and furnish a report thereon to the members at the Annual Meeting. Audits shall be conducted at regular intervals of not more than twelve months. An auditor shall not be a member or closely related to a member of the Executive Committee.




The Executive Committee shall cause minutes to be made:


of all appointments of office-bearers and members of the Committee.


of the names of members of the Committee, general members and visitors present at all meetings of the Organization and of the Committee


of all proceedings at all meetings of the Organization and of the Committee.


Minutes need not be taken at group counselling (therapy) meetings. Such minutes shall be signed by the Chairman of the meeting at which the proceedings were held or by the Chairman of the next succeeding meeting.




The Organization shall be dissolved in the event of membership less than three Persons or upon the vote of a three fourths majority of members present at a Special General Meeting, convened to consider such question


Upon a resolution being passed in accordance with paragraph (a) of this rule, all assets and funds of the Organization on hand shall, after the Payment of all expenses and liabilities be handed over to such registered or exempt charities as referred to in any of the sub paragraphs of Section 78 (1) (A) of the Income Tax assessment act as the Special General Meeting may decide at the Special General meeting so convened, or at a subsequent Special General Meeting.




These rules may be amended by a resolution passed by a two-third majority of members present at any Annual General Meeting at which notice of the proposed amendment shall have been given or at a Special General Meeting, convened for such purpose. Provided that the Minister of the Crown for the time being administering the Charitable Collections Act, 1934, as amended, shall be notified of the amendment being made.




The Advisory or Resources Committee shall consist of those qualified and professional people who will lend their support to NEXUS GROUPS groups and advise on matters of group development and therapeutic values.


No member of the group will approach any member of the Advisory or Resources Committee other than through their Executive Committee.





An Armidale Diary


Excerpts from a young Aboriginal women’s diary from the second Armidale Workshop published with her permission in the Aboriginal Human Relations Magazine June 1972. (University of New England, Dept. of University Extension et al. 1971):


‘I feel very mixed up, uneasy, frightened and I try to get myself out of this by staying in my room while the meeting is on, but I feel that it will only work in two ways, either (1) I will close up altogether, and go back to my old ways of joking my way through, or, (2) go and sit in and listen to the discussion and see how I feel when I have finished there. I decide to go back and sit down and listen to the rest speak.’


An Aboriginal women’s’ group formed because some had said they found it very difficult to talk in the large group. The young Aboriginal women and her mother joined the group but were asked to leave by some men because they thought that the two of them were big talkers.


‘My mother stayed and fought back, but I had to get out of there - my mind was blank. I didn’t even know where I was going. I felt I had to just get away from everything I was connected with. I walked till I came to my senses about a half a mile down the road.’


‘I felt better after the next morning. While that evening before, a friend helped me with my problem. We talked privately in our rooms. The next morning I seemed more sure of myself.’


‘After dinner people from Armidale told their own personal stories. This was one of the first times I ever cried in front of people, but for each of the problems I felt equally responsible for what had happened to these men.’




‘My feelings seem to be nervous, sorry and angry.’


‘I feel sick at this moment, but I feel sorry for someone or something and this feeling is choking me. The tension in this room is funny; not in the laughing sense, but in the personal sense.’


Final comment in her diary:


‘It was a good week for everyone I talked to, and the next one will be even better.’





o   Acrobatics

o   Adventure challenges

o   Aromas

o   Art as re-constituting self and others

o   Body painting and adornment

o   Carving, moulding and sculpture

o   Chanting, humming, singing, toning, and vocalizing

o   Circus & Clowning – balancing, juggling

o   Creative moving

o   Creative writing

o   Dancing and Theatre

o   Drama and spontaneous drama

o   Drawing

o   Drumming, percussion and body percussion

o   Group dynamics

o   Writing

o   Music

o   Orating

o   Painting

o   Playing and games

o   Poetry

o   Realplay and re-enactment

o   Spontaneous singing and vocalizing

o   Story-telling

o   Visual artistry

o   Voice


A list of some of the activities used in Cultural Healing Action






Petford Keyline Survey – 1992


As one aspect of the Developing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Drug and Substance Abuse Therapeutic Communities Gathering funded by the National Campaign Against Drug Abuse (NCADA) P.A. Yeomans’ son Ken Yeomans, with many of the troubled youth at Petford assisting completed a Keyline Survey of Petford.


‘Old man’ Geoff Guest runs over 140 horses on the property and at certain times a very large expense is involved in buying horse feed. Petford is about 70 kilometres inland from the high rainfall areas of the Atherton Tablelands.


At Petford it is arid, although in the wet season the Petford property, in 1992 around 150 square kilometres, received a small number of massive thunderstorms. These would drop a massive quantity of water that would disappear in sudden swift run offs into many creek beds that were soon dry again.


The Keyline survey team, aided by a contour map searched the property for a very specific landform and they found it. The area is depicted in Diagram 01. ‘A’ is a semicircular mountain range with only one drainage point. The area that was draining out through that one spot would have on average around half a dozen storms a year. ‘B’ was a system of dry creek beds that would catch this water.


‘C’ was a proposed channel and earth wall as depicted in Diagram 01a. This would divert the water along the contour line into another valley at a slightly lower elevation. The advantage of this second valley is that it is only around 40 meters wide with a rock base and high rocky walls. The water stored here would be deep with a long narrow surface. The angle of the valley means that the sun would only hit the water during the middle of the day. This would keep evaporation in the tropical heat to a minimum.


Down the valley around 200 meters at ‘E’ is a natural rock barrier that all but closes the valley. This is a natural place to build an earth wall as depicted in Diagram 01c.


A pipe could be placed at the base of the upstream wall. This pipe could go through the wall about a meter under the top and run down the down-stream side of the wall. At the base of the dam wall would be a valve to control water flow. The pipe then runs into the channel ‘F’ which follows the contour and has a dead end.


Levels are organized such that water flows over the side of this channel sideways on a natural rocky slope at a slow rate and irrigates a fan shaped area marked as ‘G’ that had sufficient depth of top soil (similar to the ‘flag’ in photos 11 and 12 in the Thesis). Water would build up behind the dam wall and back fill the creek system in the narrow valley marked as ‘D’.


It was proposed that the water be used to grow hardy local shrubs with edible foliage for the horses on half the land and the other half to be used to grow trees for oil extraction. All of the soil needed for the construction is available locally and everything could be built using the tractor and equipment Petford already has. The system requires no power as it is all gravity fed. The water stored in any one year would be more than sufficient for more than four years.



Diagram 01.







o   Having this Aboriginal women sit in on his psychotherapy

o   Linking with her in linking with other local natural nurturers

o   Monitoring Global conferences and gatherings

o   Having me writing letters

o   Seeking funds from many international and global governance agencies

o   Positioning this possible gathering as a follow-on gathering to a UN Conference

o   Arranging  me to bring up DTE site set up people

o   Encouraging me to be involved in ConFest site set-up

o   Grooming me and encouraging me to ask DTE for the two lots of funding

o   Getting DTE people skilled in site set-up to visit local sites and Aboriginal communities

o   One of the sites we visited was used for the UN funded gathering

o   Linking with other natural nurturers in the region as potential support in hosting

o   All the previous festivals he had energized including the Aquarius Festival and ConFest

o   Sending the Aboriginal and PNG women to ConFest




One Fortnight’s Laceweb Action in the Atherton Tablelands


The following details one fortnight’s Laceweb activities in the Atherton Tablelands region in December 1993, many of which were precursors to the Small Island Coastal and Estuarine People Gathering Celebration. This fortnight was during the time the three Down to Earth visitors were staying at Neville’s place in Yungaburra with Neville and me:


Virtually all of the children of Yungaburra (over 40) including Aboriginal, Islander and small minority children were engaged all day in preparing atmospherics for a New Year Party at Neville’s large bungalow heritage property in Yungaburra (refer Photo 10 in Chapter Nine). The children painted all of the pillars supporting the house with orange fluoro paint and spread fluoro-whited sand on the floor so that it glowed white at night under the fluoro lights. They also dug a channel to the atmospherics area under the top end of the house through to the back of the house that created an enchanting garden entrance by walking down earth steps in the front garden. At night this channel was also lit by fluorescent lights and had fluorescent paintings by the children draped down the earth walls. During the day each of the children had gone home and brought back white garments that they were allowed to splatter with fluoro paint. They were stunned when they wore these at night under fluoro lights. I had an extraordinary three-meter by two meter fluoro painting of outer space painted by Richard Clements, one of Australia’s leading contemporary painters. I had many hours of discussion with Richard about Laceweb. The children also splattered tens of thousands of small fluoro spots on two large dark tarps. These glowed like a million stars around the whole downstairs area at night. The extraordinary atmospherics created by the children were their exclusive domain till around 9:00 PM when they came upstairs and escorted the adults one by one into their enchanting space and music/dance area.


Approximately 150 adults and children attended this New Year’s Eve party at Neville’s place with half being Aboriginal and Islander families. Neville told everyone that he would provide the alcohol. Many of the attendees are heavy drinkers. Only extremely low strength beer was there. There was no drunkenness and many heavy drinkers said it was the first New Year’s Eve that they had stayed sober since they were toddlers and that it was their best party ever. The adults were amazed at the atmospheric space created by their children.


From this energy a children's group formed in Yungaburra that Neville called FUNPO. They would send letters to each other c/o FUNPO, Yungaburra. Yungaburra is a very small place and we had the cooperation of the local postmistress. Recall that the term FUNPO had, at one level the connotation, ‘Fun Post Office’. At a deeper level, the term stands for ‘Friends of UNPO, where ‘UNPO’ is the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization based in The Hague. Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders are members of UNPO, as are other peoples and nations not represented at global forums of the United Nations.


Also during the fortnight a number of the FUNPO children were among forty who attended a four-day camp-out in an old clearing in beautiful rainforest area owned by Neville on the Baron River at Kuranda on the Atherton Tablelands. The woman in Photo 40 attended with her son and daughter. This was in a beautiful rainforest setting. We had just finished wading up a little clear stream with a bed of golden sand so that the water looked golden. Overhead, vines hung down from the green cathedral vault of the rainforest canopy. A further busload of another 35 turned up in evening for music, dancing and fireside chats. A neighbour interested in sabotaging Neville’s intercultural activity set up a sign saying the event was cancelled and this busload returned to Cairns without finding us.

Neville dreamed that this rainforest land may become an Intercultural Healing Wellbeing Centre for the SE Asia Oceania Australasia Region – refer Appendix 01. Neville spoke of his mountain ash forest property at Paluma, North of Townsville, and his Yungaburra House also being resources linked to the proposed Intercultural Healing Centre. As at January 2003 this dream had not been realized. It is understood that the Kuranda rainforest land and the Yungaburra house had been sold in settling Neville’s estate.


Another small camp-out (around 25 people) was held at Ravenshoe beside a small stream in a beautiful bush setting. Alex Dawia brought up a small bus of 14 Aboriginal people from Bama Healing Prison Diversion Program where he worked at the time. These street people had been sobering up the previous night at BAMA. The gentle playful healing energy of the camp-out had these very shy nauseous people slowly warming to each other and the others present so that change in them was very apparent to themselves and the other participants – therapeutic community in action.


During the same two-week period a series of family therapy sessions were held by Neville with an Aboriginal extended family. An old disused World War Two hospital that was built like a hanger and had a cavernous interior was explored as a possible venue for gatherings in the wet season. This was the same fortnight that those three DTE Enablers were staying with Geoff and we visited 15 possible sites and held discussions with Aboriginal people at a number of Aboriginal communities. Neville also took the three DTE people for a day at Geoff and Norma’s Therapeutic Community a little over an hours drive away, and engaged in nightly sharing of stories with these DTE visitors and myself.


Also during the same two weeks, informal sharings of stories about what Laceweb action has been happening occurred at the monthly out-door market day in Yungaburra. Many hundreds of locals attend this market and Laceweb people take this opportunity to tell each other stories and engage in potent trivial exchanges. This market action is resonant with the Paddington Market in Sydney surrounding Neville’s first Community Mental Health Centre in the early Seventies. Trivial exchange as therapy is resonant with what Neville called, ‘home, street and rural Mediation Therapy and Mediation Counselling’, where nurturers take opportunity to use the relevant moment in everyday life to engage in healing.





The Rapid Creek Project




File Note 1 Sept 1993





The Larrakia locality Gurambai (Rapid Creek) is both a suburban region and a unique urban based watershed and creek system within the city of Darwin in the Northern Territory of Australia.


Family Nexus (refer other background notes), in association with intercultural people of the Rapid Creek Community, are developing a micro-project to nurture well-being socio-emotionally, economically and environmentally. The initiative is drawing upon the constructive cultural diversity of the community for expansion of productive economic opportunities afforded by Darwin’s proximity to East Asia. Grassroots and long-grass family action is exploring the resolution of socio-emotional issues like domestic violence, suicide, substance abuse and keeping family members out of criminal justice and mental institutions. As well, the aim is to skill families in well-being areas such as relational mediating, intercultural healing action and developing grassroots policy based on consensually evaluated and validated community action (refer other file-notes on these themes). Ideas are exploring Aboriginal and multicultural healing cultural arts action and festivals.


This bottom-up project extends to involving the local community in taking care of all aspects of the Rapid Creek catchment area. The Project is resonant with the concept of Integrated Local Area Planning (refer Social Strategies for the Northern Territory - A Strategic Workshop, April 1993: Office of Northern Development, GPO Box 4075, and Darwin 0801 NT). Preliminary explorings are beginning with long-grass aboriginal bodies and communities, local government, Greening Australia, as well as religious, welfare, health, artistic, multicultural and educational groups.


Rapid Creek is one of the few (and perhaps the only) intact urban-based watershed system left in Australia. It embraces semi arid dry lands, paperbark communities, eucalyptus woodlands, pandanus and grasslands, monsoon rainforest, as well as wetlands and mangroves. The Rapid Creek catchment area provides extensive habitat for local flora and fauna. The local community also uses Rapid Creek as a beautiful leisure environment.


Many parallel projects are coming together. They include practical rehabilitation of flora and fauna by the Friends of Rapid Creek and active planning by the Darwin City Council and Greening Australia. The more human nurturing family oriented activities are focused around the Rapid Creek Water Gardens and nearby Village shopping centre.


This is where the oldest market in Darwin is held. The market has a strong intercultural tradition with colourful stalls being run by people from many ethnic/cultural backgrounds including aboriginals and people from Papua New Guinea and other Asian Pacific and European countries. A number of grassroots nurturing well-being groups are being attracted to operate from this centre. All of the above action is developing a strong sense of community. It is villaging within the city.


In helping to remove impediments to social, environmental and economic wellbeing in Darwin, the Rapid Creek Village Project is developing a micromodel perhaps with global applicability and with specific relevance in developing Darwin as Australia's northern link to East Asia.





The Extegrity Document that Neville and I worked on in the last 12 months of Neville’s life


Facilitation of Indigenous and/or disadvantaged small minority Psycho-Cultural Healing, Humanitarian Law, and Humane Democracy

Extegrity Enablers


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Last updated October 2000


Evolving the document - 'Extegrity - Guidelines for Joint Partner Proposal Application'


Extegrity (Extensive Integrity) is a functional matrix providing enabling support to our partners and others.


Enablers are sensing a need to evolve an integral fundroving and fundseeking frameweb resonant with ethical humane ways. Given the holistic breadth of Wellbeing healing activity, substantial funds may be applied. Simultaneously, micro-activity may be supported with the widow's mite (a small coin). Vital micro-support finds its way via the heart.


Macro-funding sources rightly demand clarity of intent consistent with their foci, and require specificity, integrity, transparency, accountability and rigor. Within humane wellbeing contexts this interfaces/merges disparate ways - the preplanned and specified with the random and the spontaneous.


In this context the document 'Extegrity - Guidelines for Joint Partner Proposal Application' (set out below) is evolving for our own self-development.


Firstly the document provides ethical, organizational and funding administrative guidelines. Secondly it specifies:


1.    the nature of macro-fiduciary relationships we will consider with both fund sources and wellbeing action co-partners

2.    the ethical humane character of our co-partnerships, and

3.    the ordering, framing and nature of our co-partner action


In respect of point 3 above, this document hints at the pervasive scope of humane wellbeing action - including humanitarian law and humanitarian democracy - towards re-constituting all aspects of the social life-world towards wellbeing.


This page may be used by macro and micro funding entities and co-partners alike to get a sense of our wellbeing action and humane ethical ways.


 Note: More informal funding arrangements will be considered .


Refer the motion and Implementing Proposals .







Facilitation of Indigenous and/or disadvantaged small minority Psycho-Cultural Healing, Humanitarian Law, and Humane Democracy


Extegrity (Extensive Integrity) is a functional matrix providing enabling support. Displayed are the ethical, organizational and funding administrative guidelines that Extegrity are evolving for our own self-development. In addition, this document seems to be emerging as of unifying educational value in our growing cooperation between a number of SE Asian, Pacific and Australasian deprived mini-minority and indigenous groups. This document is the way in which we and our co-partners have been exploring our relationships.


A short background and description of the priorities and criteria used when facilitating grants for the furtherance of psychosocial healing, mediation counseling/therapy, humanitarian caring rights/talents and humanitarian caring democratic community follows.





Extegrity (Extensive Integrity) is about co-evolving a not-for-profit Indigenous and/or disadvantaged micro minority humane community partnership enterprise. Our focus is on self heal, self help enabling action by minority/Indigenous people. We favor enabling mediation therapy, learning healing and embracing cultural celebratory psychosocial experiences. Perhaps these may best be shared with overseas neighbors in seminars, healshops and gatherings at pleasant and safe places in North Australia. Our purposes include fundroving and fundfinding and the facilitation of fund transfers to jointly cooperative partnerships of humane caring Indigenous and/or disadvantaged small minimized minority individuals and groups. Approval of an application thereby gives the partners membership of Extegrity's board.


We are committed to the extension of humanitarian law process, such as those promoted and practiced by the Red Cross, Red Crescent, Medecin Sans Frontiere (Doctors Without Frontiers) and similar bodies. Humanitarian law may be described as enabling ethics law - the law of sisterly/brotherly love, expressing the caring Integrity of communities. It is the care/share principles guided processes of health, education, welfare, land healing and other aspects of environmental law and of the arts community norms expressing healing learning, beauty and joy (the passage of humane rites).


We respect the long traditions of humanitarian principles such as medicine's Oath of Hippocrates and the canon law duties of spiritual bodies, including aid to the disadvantaged and funding for full education of the talented poor. Modern versions of these humane rights and sacred duties may well be evolving by community and individual example. Perhaps these are expressed by Australian 'Clean Up the World' and attitudes of a 'fair go' for all, South African Truth and Reconciliation processes, and the humane talents of Indigenous and small minority peoples for open sincere community discussion, consensus, creative compromise, reconciliation and forgiveness. These we can learn from; express, evolve and extend perhaps towards a more virtuous reality.


We are also committed to the respect and promotion of global principles set out in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, enhanced by the international Covenants on civil and political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights.


Our activities fit in with commitments created by the main international and regional instruments for the protection of humanitarian and Human Rights. These instruments enshrine common values regarding fundamental freedoms and democratic principles that can be said to be universal, indivisible and interdependent.


Our partners and others contribute in your own way to these priorities and to a common "positive, practical and constructive approach" for the enabling of mediation counseling/therapy, and self-heal/self help by and for tortured and traumatized persons and groups. We are exploring effective and visible action. We are aiming for clarity and transparency while fostering the flexibility needed for extension and for a prompt response to emergencies. These may help ensure that our actions are better attuned to the needs of partners, other beneficiaries and initiatives by others.


If anyone wants to make any suggestions of ways to increase the fairness, openness, humanity and effectiveness of our evolving process, please contact any of us that you like. If interested, please feel free to discuss with possible partners. Perhaps you may then decide to form and/or broaden such partnerships and then consider discussion as to whether or not to jointly return a completed application to:




| Email - also request for Application Form |




o   Healing

o   Humanitarian law

o   Humanitarian democracy




We have so far identified the following thematic priorities and focus groups, as requiring attention.

Please note that these priorities are indicative and that the following list does not pretend to be exhaustive.






psycho social nurturing rehabilitation and liaison/mediation therapy/counselling;


conflict prevention and negotiation, sacred and personal mediation, confidence-building, conflict resolving, healing festivals and community education;

international, individual and community caring and celebratory cooperation.


Rule of Humanitarian Law.


transparency of community organization with an emphasis on grassroots community development, local humane democracy, participation by citizens effected, and lastly caring local self governance;


encouragement of humane alternatives for Security structures such as the use of minority/Indigenous healing liaisoners; and in dangerous emergencies, tranquillizer darts;

information and education to support humane actions by the international court of justice such as its decision against apartheid; the international criminal court; and community initiated humane treaties such as the anti-landmine agreement and the Beijing Declaration of Indigenous Women.


Intercultural humanitarian democratic community


caring mediation;


developing local groups and associations for self-heal/self help, healfests;


gender equal opportunities and non discriminatory equitable practice;


independent, pluralist and humanely responsive media including ethical and capacity training of writers, presenters etc.;


information and education on humanitarian rights to receive/give care and nurturing;


community humane democracy - encouragement for open community based grassroots caring self-governance.




o   Survivors of Torture and trauma

o   Indigenous peoples

o   Disadvantaged Small Minorities

o   Women

o   Children

o   Refugees/returnees

o   Prisoners

o   Disabled


Our main locus of initiation is North Australia. Our use of the term 'overseas' is in relation to this locus. Our main regional focus is on Australasia-Oceania and SE Asia.




Projects should be in accordance with the Extegrity principles described above.


Applicant organizations must be properly accredited, indigenous/small minority non- governmental, non-profit making organizations or institutions.


Applications must be accompanied by the necessary supporting documents, namely:


o   detailed schedule of activities for the project;


o   detailed budget in Australian dollars (Aus $) for the project;


o   previous annual report and certified accounts of the organization;


o   statutes and/or articles of association of the organization;


Applicants who have previously received a grant are required to submit evidence of successful project completion to be eligible for further assistance.


Grants are meant to cover costs directly associated with a specific project or action and cannot be used to cover the operating budget of the organization concerned. The administrative costs cannot exceed a fixed percentage over the total cost of the project (see later).


Financial assistance for a project will generally consist of a contribution and cannot cover the total cost of the project.


No grant awards can be applied retroactively to cover costs incurred before the date of the signature of the grant declaration by the beneficiary. Project activities ought to start only after the signature of the joint cooperation agreement with partners and Extegrity, and the co-financing agreement between the Applicant and the Funder. Costs incurred before agreements are signed by all signatories will not be reimbursed.


Examination of each application is made in consultation, conferring with appropriate indigenous/minority and other bodies connected with Extegrity. Proposals are then made to the Funder for decision. Please note that Extegrity's decision is final as is the Funders. Given the large number of requests receivable the declining of applicants cannot include detailed justifications.




Projects of a partisan nature or involving political parties are not eligible (though multi party helpfulness is encouraged). One off conferences, grants to individuals, scholarships and academic research would normally be excluded unless part of a broader project.


Projects of social assistance or emergency humanitarian relief


Activities covered by other support by the same or connected overseas funders


Purchasing of buildings or offices, deficit funding and capital endowments, retrospective financing for projects already in existence or completed are not eligible.


Organizations or projects advocating political activism or violence in any form.






All the key lines enabled by Extegrity are covered by the application form. The general objectives of the three key lines - healing, humanitarian law and humanitarian democracy - are to facilitate, enable and extend these in our geographic area.




With this key line, Extegrity explores and aims towards:


The sharing of indigenous/minority wisdoms, knowledge, talents and processes of self-heal/self-help and mediation counselling/therapy; as well as their practice and organization by multi-origin groups of nurturers, healers, carers, liaisoners, personal spiritual and celebratory mediators, counsellors and the like.


Support for activities of groups and organization pursuing humane rights objectives and support for healing learning healfests and rehabilitation centres for the survivors of torture and trauma and for groups and organizations offering concrete aids to victims of humane/caring human rights abuses.


Humanitarian (caring) community law:


With this key line, Extegrity explores and aims towards:


The transfer of specific talents and micro-experiences of humane healing practices and the rule of humane law to indigenous/minority community workers groups and associations in the countries concerned.


Support for activities of communities, groups, and organizations pursuing humane talents and rights objectives


Humanitarian (caring) Democratic Community


With this key line, Extegrity explores and aims towards:


o   The strengthening of indigenous/minority community and people's non- governmental bodies and associations which by their vocation and specific activities can make a continuing contribution to the extension of a humane caring intercultural and interdigenous open democratic community

o   Open humane caring democracy/combined macro-projects of open humane caring democratic community






Rehabilitation and healing learning self help action by and for survivors of torture and trauma ; in particular projects aimed at enabling women and children victims of human rights abuses;


Implementing of Indigenous/disadvantaged small minority based healing learning and rehabilitation processes;


Activities to mobilize and apply healing learning talents, including setting up healing learning experiential units capable of rapid deployment;


Learning contexts for health and wellbeing workers in the healing of survivors of torture and trauma.


Caring Law


Preventing of torture and violence; including rehabilitating violent offenders to their humanitarian duties - facing violence with tender-tough bruv-love;


Extending respect of Indigenous and small minority peoples' humanitarian rights and talents at a regional and world wide level;


Extending and protecting women's humane caring healing talents and rights;


Strengthening respect for the humane rights of the child to be cared for, nurtured, playing and learning.


Caring Democratic Community


Strengthening and extending community groups, networks and associations and furthering confidence building measures for those suffering from violence






Applicants who have previously received a grant are required to submit evidence of successful project completion to be eligible for further assistance. Where continuity would be compromised by this provision, evidence of successful implementation to date should be provided.


General administrative costs should not exceed 5% of the total project costs. Where the strengthening of a specific organization is an integral part of the project and its objectives, costs associated with this objective may be considered; they must be itemized, not merely indicated as general administrative costs.


In the case of torture victims rehabilitation centres, the contribution may go towards the organizations running costs.


Applicants must normally contribute at least 20% of total project costs. At least 10% of this must be in finance. Up to 10% may be contributions in kind (e.g. volunteers, expertise, equipment, premises).


Contracts will not normally be funded for periods exceeding 36 months.


The main applicant should hold the bank account into which the grant is paid, and this account should be located in the same country as the main applicant. The account should be an Australian dollar account, whenever possible.


Applicants must supply brief personal and work summaries (CV's) of main persons employed on projects, and may not sub contract activities without the prior agreement of Extensive Integrity and the Funder.


Two sorts of projects may be supported microprojects and larger scale projects.


Some microprojects contributing to overall macro programs may be up to Aus $50,000


Any equipment financed with Extegrity assistance must remain the property of local (as opposed to Funder based) bodies at the end of the project.


Public bodies such as charities, churches, ministries or local authorities, whilst not being eligible as a project partner, may be auxiliaries to projects in a supporting capacity.

Different geographic and functional areas must be clearly separated and defined in your application.


Geographic: for example, in Australia Territory Top End or Far North Queensland, or both. For overseas fieldwork, put country and exact location within it.


Function: please define your special interests, what you're good at and how you describe yourself, e.g. carer, healer, counsellor, liaisoner, mental health worker, mediator, healfest organiser, educator and evaluative researcher.




Projects must cover all three of healing learning, humanitarian law and democratic humane caring community.


The objectives remain primarily sib-like caring healing, and thus do include socio-emotional and mediation therapy/counselling, inspiring mediation and other processes because they encourage fair open caring law and governance processes of activities.


A limited number of larger scale projects may be financeable. Projects must be involving at least two countries in Australasia-Oceania and SE Asia. The minimum size of such macro-projects might be Aus $200,000, and in general the maximum combined funding may be Aus $1,000,000. Perhaps the only justifiable significantly larger funding would be an overall macro program involving multiple regions from South Asia to Oceania and including focal activities of Indigenous/small minority groups right across North Australia.




Indigenous/disadvantaged small minority applicants and their formal partners should be properly constituted non state, non profit making bodies and independent of State authorities, that is, they determine their own policies and expenditure. Their main Australian base should be in the North.


Informal partners and others may network and join with applicants and formal partners


Coalitions of Indigenous tertiary educators/practical research bodies; and consortia of Indigenous/ disadvantaged small minority media bodies may also be regarded as eligible partners within these programs.


Specific conditions for combined key programs (macro-projects):


o   Successful applicants must be experienced and include partners able to demonstrate the capacity to manage larger scale activity.

o   It is essential that programs involve numerous organizations and persons acting in partnership. It is also desirable that such combinations extend right across North Australia and include overseas members.


A partnership is a relationship of substance involving the active exchange of talents, skills, experience, knowledge, wisdoms and possibly finance.

Projects designed to promote good neighbourly relations by bringing together participants from more than one country in Australasia-Oceania and/or SE Asia States (e.g. regional transborder cooperation) are particularly encouraged.


Projects focused on the acquisition and application of knowledge and processes of mediation therapy/counselling, psycho-social/cultural rehabilitation and conflict resolution practice may have limited requirements to involve formally constituted partner bodies on the following conditions: that they relate to what may be informal groups of Indigenous minority care/share leaders, elders, healers and mediators from different areas, clan-land or nations representing different issues. An example might be an all-origin group of humane elders interested in using peacehealing approaches to extend humane care rights/talents and rehabilitation in their local area or nation state.


The informal group must still complete a partnership form.


The main applicant must, of course be a non-governmental organization (which cannot be political).


Applicants to combined programs must be North Australian bodies which include overseas and Indigenous and/or small minority partners and individuals born in Oceania or SE Asia.




All applicants' projects are evaluated to assess the project's potential to fulfil the stated objectives and the estimated impact the project will have on the Extegrity program. A scoring system based on the following criteria can be used as an indicator:


o   conformity with the general objectives of Extegrity

o   relevance of project to the needs and constraints of the country(ies) concerned and the focal beneficiaries

o   methods proposed for the execution of the project

o   cost effectiveness of the project

o   quality of the organization and broad base

o   visibility of the Funder's contribution


Evidence for:


o   quality of partnership and relations

o   efficacy

o   fulfilment of project objectives based on all the other criteria

o   impact and multiplier effect - short/long term


Priority is accorded to projects by Indigenes/disadvantaged small minorities offering concrete and direct aid.

Projects by Indigenes/disadvantaged small minorities concerning evaluative and action research and seminars of particular merit are taken into consideration in so far as is possible.


Bodies connected with Extegrity are consulted for background information on the projects according to their geographic scope and thematic coverage. Where relevant, projects may also be subject to an external consultation to ensure that the organizations funded have recognized talents and experience in the field.


Applications are selected on an ongoing basis. Once a complete grant application is submitted, applicants should allow a minimum period of twelve months for a decision to be taken by Extegrity.


The beneficiary organization must accept the inspection procedures of Extegrity, the Funder and their auditor structures and procedures.


Specific criteria for open healing humane, democratic combined macro-programs


o   Quality of partnership: capacity of all operators to execute project, clear identification of the roles of the partners (extent of co operation, level of involvement of partners from Australasia-Oceania and SE Asia)


o   Good relations: projects which bringing together participants from more than one nation state of Australasia-Oceania and SE Asia, or promoting transborder co operation and projects relating to national Indigenous/disadvantaged small minorities and promoting gender equality.




If you together decide to obtain an application and put forward a proposal, please respect the format provided and follow the page order. All questions must be answered exactly in the order of presentation of the application form. An original dated and signed declaration, following the application format, must be attached for the lead applicant. All requested annexes (declaration, detailed budget, partnership forms) must be provided.


Please draft your application as clearly as possible, taking into accoun